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Spaced Use of Social Media Apps Among Motor Practice Trials Impacts Performance Without Influencing Mental Fatigue and Motor Learning

Marina Gonçalves Leal, José Eduardo dos Martírios Luz, Ana Kariele da Silva Santos, Cicero Luciano Alves Costa, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Cassio de Miranda Meira Jr, and Giordano Marcio Gatinho Bonuzzi

We aimed to investigate the impact of smartphone use during intertrial intervals within a distributed practice regime on mental fatigue, performance, and learning of a balance motor skill. One hundred and thirty-six participants were randomly divided into two groups: the smartphone use group (SMARTPHONE) and the control group (CONTROL). The SMARTPHONE accessed social media during the rest periods within a distributed practice of a balance task, whereas the CONTROL rested passively during the rest periods. The participants practiced the toe-touch task. The participants underwent a pretest consisting of one trial. Subsequently, the participants were engaged in practice, completing six trials interspersed with 2-min intervals of either rest or smartphone use. Following the practice phase, a posttest was conducted, and after 24 hr, we administered a retention test and a transfer test. The number of touches and the number of errors (contacting the ground with the free leg to regain balance) were performance measures. We evaluated the participants’ mental fatigue after the practice session using a visual analog scale. The groups demonstrated similar mental fatigue after practice. Our results suggest that using social media on smartphones during rest periods within a distributed practice impairs performance but not motor learning.

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International Society of Research and Advocacy for Developmental Coordination Disorder (ISRA-DCD)—15th Biannual Conference and International Motor Development Research Consortium (I-MDRC)—6th Assembly

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A Holistic Focus of Attention Increases Torque Production and Electromyography Activity in an Isokinetic Elbow Flexion

Kevin A. Becker and Marco A. Avalos

Recent research suggests that both a holistic focus of attention (i.e., focusing on the general feeling of a movement) and an external focus of attention improve motor performance relative to an internal focus of attention. The purpose of this study was to determine how a holistic, internal, and external focus impacts torque production and electromyography (EMG) activity in the biceps brachii during an isokinetic elbow flexion task. Twenty-four young adults completed five repetitions of an isokinetic elbow flexion task in internal, external, and holistic focus conditions. Peak torque, integrated torque, peak EMG amplitude, integrated EMG, and neuromuscular efficiency were averaged across trials in each condition. Peak torque, integrated torque, peak EMG amplitude, and integrated EMG were all significantly higher with a holistic focus than an internal or external focus. Internal and external focus conditions did not differ from each other in any variable. No differences due to focus were observed for neuromuscular efficiency. The present results suggest that using a holistic focus of attention can be a useful strategy for motor tasks requiring peak force production. However, it does not appear that this benefit is related to increased neuromuscular efficiency, as we hypothesized.

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Construct Validity and Reliability of the Affordances for Motor Behavior of Schoolchildren in South India

Vinuta Deshpande, Pratiksha Kalgutkar, Ana Filipa Silva, and Fábio Saraiva Flôres

The Affordances for Motor Behavior of Schoolchildren (AMBS) is a standardized self-reporting tool comprising 73 questions, organized into seven sections aiming to assess affordances in children’s regular contexts. This investigation aims to establish the reliability and validity of the results obtained from the AMBS in South Indian children. The AMBS reliability and construct validity were evaluated in 393 Indian families whose children were aged between 6 and 10 years old. The internal consistency of the AMBS was evaluated by retesting the tool in a subsample of 30 families following a 14-day interval between assessments (intraclass correlation coefficient), showing a reliability level of .933. The validity of the scale was evaluated using the confirmatory factor analysis. The model that was tested indicated a very good fit, and the structural model presented significant loading coefficients from the identified variables to the theoretically specified latent factors. Positively significant correlation values were found between factors: home and materials (r = .78), home and school (r = .55), and materials and school (r = .77). Our findings suggest that AMBS is a reliable assessment tool and can evaluate the affordances provided to South Indian children. This information can be used to develop interventions to improve the physical activity levels of these children.

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Impacts of Developmental Coordination Disorder on Postural Control Mechanisms in Children and Early Adolescents

Sirine Guetiti, Geneviève Cadoret, Félix Chénier, and Mariève Blanchet

Several studies have demonstrated balance impairments in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). However, a recent meta-analysis reports that none of the existing studies investigated the entire construct of balance across the same postural task. It is unclear whether anticipatory postural adjustments before voluntary unperturbed leaning tasks are altered in DCD. Anticipatory postural adjustment’s impact on postural control and limits of stability as well as the contribution of proprioception in these mechanisms are also unknown. This study compared the center of pressure displacements of participants with DCD (n = 30) to typically developing participants (n = 20) (9–12 years old). Standing on an AMTI force plate, participants were asked to lean as far as possible forward, backward, rightward, and leftward in both natural and with eyes closed + foam conditions (eight separated trials). The statistical analysis revealed that the DCD group had larger anticipatory postural adjustments, maximal center of pressure excursion, and greater postural instabilities than the control group. The proprioceptive condition does not systematically influence postural performance in DCD. These deficits are, however, increased in mediolateral directions. These impairments could interfere with children’s performance during daily and physical activities and even negatively impact social inclusion.

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Essential Motor Skills and Evidence-Based Activities for Enhancing Child Motor Skill Development During Out-of-School Time Programming: An Expert Consensus Study

Peter Stoepker, Duke Biber, Brian Dauenhauer, Leah E. Robinson, and David A. Dzewaltowski

Background: Locomotor and object control skills are considered essential skills for children to learn due to their potential impact in aiding in future health-enhancing physical activity. Evidence indicates that out-of-school time programs (OST) can provide meaningful movement opportunities for children. It has been found that leaders of OST programs are not equipped with the proper training to improve children’s motor skills. The purpose of this study was to gather expert consensus on the essential motor skills that should be practiced and evidence-based activities that should be integrated during OST programming. Methods: A three-round Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on essential motor skills that children (5–10 years of age) should practice and evidence-based activities that should be integrated during OST programming to enhance child motor skill development. Results: Seven experts completed three rounds, and consensus was established (>70% agreement). Five essential motor skills were identified: overhand throwing, kicking, catching, jumping, and striking. Six evidence-based activities were agreed upon: team sport play, racket sports, swimming, resistance training, jogging/walking, and game-based approaches. Conclusion: Results from this study provide specific motor skills and evidence-based activities that program leaders could integrate during OST programming to enhance child motor skill development.

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Do Parental Beliefs and Support Predict the Motor Competence of Youth With Visual Impairments?

Alexandra Stribing, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Parents tend to play a vital role in their child’s motor competence for youth with visual impairments. However, little research has explored parental mindsets and support (e.g., transportation) surrounding their child’s motor skills and how it may predict motor competence. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which parents’ mindset items along with parental support may predict their children’s actual motor competence. Parents of youth with visual impairments (N = 92; mothers = 69.5%, fathers = 18.1%; M age = 42.91 years, SD = 8.08 years) completed the modified parents’ perception questionnaire. Youth with visual impairments ages 9–19 years (N = 95; M age = 153.35 months, SD = 27.58 months, girls = 37.1%, boys = 53.3%, 9.6% missing) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-third edition. Results from a backward linear regression convey parental beliefs (i.e., growth mindsets) and support variables (e.g., providing transportation) significantly predicted their child’s actual motor competence, F(6, 84) = 9.77, p < .001, adj. R 2 = .37. Results could inform parents on their importance toward supporting and believing in developing their child’s motor competence.

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Volume 12 (2024): Issue 1 (Apr 2024)

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Soccer Skill Performance and Retention Following an 8-Week Adapted Soccer Intervention in Adults With Disabilities

Danielle M. Lang, Emily E. Munn, Claire E. Tielke, Mary G. Nix Caden, Tessa M. Evans, and Melissa M. Pangelinan

This study evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week (two sessions/week; 60 min/session) adapted soccer intervention on skill performance and retention in 30 adults (18 men and 12 women) ages 17–40 years with autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and intellectual disability. Of these 30 participants, 18 completed a 1-month retention test. The program included behavior supports and adaptations for participants with varying levels of behavioral needs. Dribbling, kicking a moving ball, kicking a stationary ball, throw-ins, trapping, and a composite skill score were examined. Linear mixed-effect regression revealed a significant time main effect with improvements from pretest to posttest and pretest to retention for all skills. In addition, modest offline gains (i.e., posttest < retention) were observed for throw-ins, kicking a moving ball, and the composite skill score. A significant main effect of diagnosis was observed such that participants with autism spectrum disorder had better performance on kicking a moving ball than those with Down syndrome and intellectual disability. Finally, a significant main effect of level of function was observed. This program enabled adults with various disabilities to acquire fundamental soccer skills that may lead to meaningful participation in community soccer programs.

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Erratum. SKIPping With PAX: Evaluating the Effects of a Dual-Component Intervention on Gross Motor Skill and Social–Emotional Development

Journal of Motor Learning and Development