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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 2 (Mar 2024)

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The Roles of Perceived Safety Climate and Innovativeness in the Performance of Sport and Recreation Organizations

Minjung Kim, Han Soo Kim, Brent D. Oja, Jasamine Hill, Claire Zvosec, and Paul Yuseung Doh

The recent COVID-19 pandemic created an unpredictable environment regarding the safety operations of sport and recreation organizations. This study was designed to examine how safety climate and organizational innovativeness could promote preferred organizational behavior outcomes in college campus sport and recreation centers. A total of 227 sport and recreation employees were recruited through the National Intramural and Recreational Sports Association. With the collected data, we employed structural equation modeling to assess the research hypotheses. The results indicated that safety climate and innovativeness positively influenced job engagement, therefore leading to enhanced safety compliance and employee innovativeness, which ultimately resulted in higher levels of organizational performance. Peer safety compliance was also found to be a moderator in the relationship between job engagement and safety compliance. In this study, the authors offer new insights into sport organizational performance by emphasizing safety and innovation.

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Selling Gender Through Kids’ Sport Team Merchandise: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis

Katherine Sveinson and Charles D.T. Macaulay

Scholars studying team-licensed fan apparel have begun to surface the meanings communicated through fan clothing, particularly focusing on its gendered nature. This study extends upon this previous research by examining children’s sport fan apparel via a social semiotics theoretical framework. The authors collected 377 items from 14 teams in seven major leagues in the United States. Merging a feminist lens with multimodal critical discourse analysis methodology, they uncovered how discourses and meanings in the marketing of these materials communicate organizational practices and structures. The study determined that the marketing presented discourses of gender segregation and (false) gender neutrality, as well as discourses of good parenting that legitimized the consumption of merchandise as a reflection of parenting ideologies. Organizations must address internal gendered practices to produce marketing materials and artifacts supporting gender equity and inclusivity.

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A Typology of Circular Sport Business Models: Enabling Sustainable Value Co-Creation in the Sport Industry

Anna Gerke, Julia Fehrer, Maureen Benson-Rea, and Brian P. McCullough

There is a continuing interest in the relationship between sport and nature. As a new field, sport ecology explores the impact sport has on the natural environment and how sport organizations and individuals can promote sustainability. However, a critical element is still missing in the sport ecology discourse—the link between organizations’ sustainability efforts and their value co-creation processes. The circular economy can provide this link by decoupling the value co-creation of sport business models from their environmental impact and resource depletion. Based on an extensive literature review, this study provides a new theoretically derived typology of circular sport business models, including comprehensive reasoning about sustainable value co-creation processes in the sport industry. It explains how sport managers of all three sectors—for-profit, public, and nonprofit—can transition toward more sustainable and circular business practices and offer integrative guidelines for future research.

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Motivations, Barriers, and Supports: An Examination of the Experiences of Women of Color Recreational Sport Coaches

Eric Legg and Rebecca Varney

Coaches play an instrumental role in the experiences of youth sport participants. Though girls participate in youth sport at similar rates as boys, coaching positions continue to be dominated by men. Existing research supports the value of diverse role models, especially for culturally diverse youth, and women coaches of color are especially important in sport given the low participation rates of ethnocultural minorities. Given the importance of diverse role models as sport coaches, this study investigates the experiences of women of color who coach sport at the recreational level. Based on interviews with 14 individuals, and grounded in socioecological theory, our findings describe the experience of research participants at each level (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and sociocultural) with a focus on the entry experience, barriers, and supports. Findings suggest that gendered and racial norms influence experiences across the model, and further lead to practical implications for sport managers.

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Volume 38 (2024): Issue 1 (Jan 2024)

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Fan Engagement Behavior: Validation of a Theory-Based Scale

Masayuki Yoshida, Rui Biscaia, Sebastian Uhrich, Brian S. Gordon, Marcel Huettermann, and Makoto Nakazawa

In this research, we conducted two studies to validate a multidimensional scale of fan engagement behavior. In Study 1, we generated survey items through a systematic review of the relevant literature, collected data from fans of professional baseball (n = 319) and soccer (n = 301), and provided evidence for the construct and concurrent validity of the scale composed of six dimensions. In Study 2, we reassessed construct validity in professional baseball (n = 582) and found that fan engagement behavior was represented by the proposed six dimensions with a final list of 21 items. Further, our predictive analysis throughout a season showed that fan engagement behavior fully mediated the relationship between predictor (team identification and awareness of fan engagement initiatives) and outcome variables (media viewing frequency, attendance frequency, and flourishing). The developed scale advances our understanding of fans’ voluntary actions that are culturally embedded in spectator sport.

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Global Sports and Contemporary China (1st ed.)

Luke Mashburn

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Modeling Residents’ Mega Sport Event Social Value: Integrating Social and Economic Mechanisms

Jordan T. Bakhsh, Marijke Taks, and Milena M. Parent

Social value is the difference between monetized social impacts and related economic investments. Stimulating positive social value is a leading concern and focus for sport event stakeholders. However, insights on this socioeconomic phenomenon have concentrated on social or economic mechanisms, not both, and are siloed to host city residents, largely overlooking nonhost city residents central to events. Thus, we integrated social and economic mechanisms to examine host city and nonhost city residents’ mega sport event social value. Data from 1,880 Canadians revealed varying social values (Vancouver and Provincial = negative; Venue-City = neutral; National = positive). Applying a reverse contingent valuation method, findings confirmed the need to integrate (monetized) social and economic mechanisms to calculate social value. Testing an augmented social exchange theory model, findings highlight residents’ perceptual ambivalence to social impacts and the importance of income to estimate social value. Stakeholders should effectively leverage events for social impacts and reconsider event public funding allocation policies.

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Research Handbook on Sport and COVID-19

E. Su Jara-Pazmino