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Volume 18 (2024): Issue 1 (Mar 2024)

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Framing Physical Literacy for Adults Through a Rehabilitation Lens: An Expert Consensus Study

Celeste Petrusevski, Joy C. MacDermid, Michael G. Wilson, and Julie Richardson

Research indicates a positive relationship between physical literacy and healthy aging; however, there is no consensus on the components required to become a physically literate adult. The objective of this study was to understand how physical literacy for adults with chronic conditions is characterized from the perspective of healthcare professionals. Physiotherapy leaders and physical literacy researchers within North America were invited to an online consensus panel and presented with questions related to physical literacy and rehabilitation. A nominal group technique was used for idea generation, clarification, and ranking. Confidence and safety with movements, motivation and commitment to physical activity, the ability to self-monitor changes in function, and understanding the benefits of physical activity were key components when defining physical literacy. There is a need to reconceptualize physical literacy to include the rehabilitation needs of adults living with chronic conditions, and to design programs that promote physical literacy to enhance function and mobility.

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Psychosocial Outcomes Associated With Types and Intensities of Physical Activity in People With Spinal Cord Injury: The Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy and Functionality

Alex Castan, Iván Bonilla, Andrés Chamarro, and Joan Saurí

Background: Low rates of participation and quality of life (QoL) and high rates of psychological distress are common in spinal cord injury (SCI) population. Research has supported the mediating role of self-efficacy and functionality in improving psychosocial outcomes. Furthermore, evidence supports the impact of physical activity (PA) on psychosocial variables, but little is known about the types and intensities of PA. The objective of this study was to determine whether functionality and/or general self-efficacy (GSE) mediate the relationships between the various types of PA: (1) lifestyle and (2) leisure-time physical activity (LTPA); and various intensities of PA: (1) mild, (2) moderate, and (3) heavy PA with participation, psychological distress, and perception of QoL. Methods: The Physical Activity Recall Assessment for SCI, and measures of functionality, GSE, participation, psychological distress, and perception of QoL were administered to 159 participants. Path analysis was performed using Jeffrey’s Amazing Statistics Program. Results: GSE significantly mediated, and functionality partially significantly mediated, the relationship between LTPA and psychosocial outcomes. GSE and functionality did not mediate the relationship between lifestyle activity and psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions: It is recommended that people with SCI perform LTPA on a regular basis to achieve psychosocial benefits. These programs should be accompanied by strategies to improve GSE.

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Systemic Sirtuin 1 as a Potential Target to Mediate Interactions Between Body Fat and Testosterone Concentration in Master Athletes

Patricio Lopes de Araújo Leite, Larissa Alves Maciel, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Caio Victor Sousa, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves, Ivo Vieira de Sousa Neto, Lucca Campbell Simões, Thiago dos Santos Rosa, and Herbert Gustavo Simões

Evidence indicates that master athletes have higher concentration of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), lower body fat (BF), and greater activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in comparison to untrained peers. However, no published data have demonstrated possible mediation effect of Sirt1 in the interaction of BF and testosterone in this population. Therefore, this study compared and verified possible associations between Sirt1, BF, fat mass index (FMI), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone/luteinizing hormone (T/LH) ratio in middle-aged master athletes (n = 54; 51.22 ± 7.76 years) and control middle-aged peers (n = 21; 47.76 ± 8.47 years). Venous blood was collected for testosterone, LH, and Sirt1. BF was assessed through skinfold protocol. Although LH concentration did not differ between groups, master athletes presented higher concentration of Sirt1, testosterone, and T/LH ratio, and lower BF and FMI in relation to age-matched nonathletes. Moreover, Sirt1 correlated positively with testosterone and T/LH ratio, negatively with BF, and was not significantly correlated with LH (mediation analysis revealed the effect of BF on testosterone is mediated by Sirt1 and vice versa; R 2 = .1776; p = .032). In conclusion, master athletes have higher testosterone, T/LH ratio, and Sirt1, and lower BF and FMI in relation to untrained peers. Furthermore, Sirt1 was negatively associated with BF and positively associated with testosterone and T/LH ratio. These findings suggest that increased circulating Sirt1, possibly due to the master athlete’s training regimens and lifestyle, exhibits a potential mediation effect on the interaction between endocrine function and body composition.

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The History of Physical Activity Promotion in Physical Education and Suggestions for Moving Forward

Erin E. Centeio and Timothy A. Brusseau

Physical activity (PA) is an essential component of the physical education classroom, whether it is used to practice motor skills, increase motor competence, or provide experience and opportunities to nurture lifelong PA participation. This chapter outlines the history of PA in the school setting, beginning with physical education and expanding through a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program model including PA during the school day (e.g., recess and classroom-based activity), PA before and after school (including active commuting), staff involvement, and family and community engagement. We begin by discussing the theoretical underpinnings of PA in the school setting and then outline previous research around PA implications. Ideas and suggestions for how the field of physical education and PA in schools can move the field forward together to embrace PA during the school day while being culturally and socially just are presented. Finally, future directions and implications for research are discussed.

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An Overview of Physical Activity Research Evolution in Africa: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity—GoPA!

Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Andrea Ramirez Varela, Estelle V. Lambert, Eduardo Ribes Kohn, Pedro C. Hallal, and Michael Pratt

Objective: To describe the evolution of physical activity (PA) research in Africa, examine income and gender inequalities, and discuss future possibilities. Methods: A secondary analyses of the Global Observatory for Physical Activity data on PA research in Africa (1950–2019). Results: We identified 514 PA articles from 47 African countries in the past 70 years. Majority (83.1%) of the articles were published between 2012 and 2019. Fifteen countries had no publications. Six countries (South Africa [n = 156], Nigeria [n = 85], Ethiopia [n = 44], Ghana [n = 41], Kenya [n = 39], and Cameroon [n = 20]) accounted for about 75% of the publications. Most articles were observational (92.4%), single-country studies (78.4%), with male first (58.4%) and last authors (68%), and were classified as surveillance studies (45.1%). Few studies addressed interventions (5.8%) and policy (3.5%) or used device-based PA measurement (14.0%). The number of articles per country was positively related to human population level (r = .552, P = .000) and gross domestic product % spent on research and development (r = .301, P = .040). The publication rate per 100,000 people was positively related with the human development index (r = .349, P = .016) and negatively with the gender inequality index (r = −.360, P = .019). Conclusions: Our results provide an overview and status of PA research in Africa, highlighting country differences and gender inequalities in authorship. The findings may be used to benchmark the evolution of research in the region and to inform areas for improvement. There is an urgent need for more PA interventions and policy studies in Africa.

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Sport and Exercise Psychology and Women’s Sport/Physical Activity Across Generations: Perspectives From Pre-Title IX Boomer Through Millennial to Post-Title IX Gen Z

Kira Borum, Erin J. Reifsteck, and Diane L. Gill

Our author team represents three distinct generations, including an early Baby Boomer senior scholar, a Millennial mid-career scholar-professional, and a recent Gen Z graduate student. All three of us have been involved in sport and exercise psychology (SEP) from a feminist and social justice perspective during our academic careers and have traversed the intersections of these disciplines in our SEP practice and scholarship. In our conversations, we discuss the evolution of women’s place in sport/physical activity and SEP over time and situate our experiences across varied generations and positionalities, including highlighting our connections to, and the unique role of, our home institution. In those conversations, we acknowledge the progress that has been made while recognizing the ways in which sport/physical activity and SEP remain contested spaces. We conclude with our reflections and thoughts on moving forward to address diversity, equity, inclusion, and social justice for participants, practitioners, and scholars.

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Autonomy-Supportive, External-Focus Instructions Optimize Children’s Motor Learning in Physical Education

Thomas Simpson, Mitchell Finlay, Victoria Simpson, Ayoub Asadi, Paul Ellison, Evelyn Carnegie, and David Marchant

An external focus of attention and autonomy support are identified as key factors to optimize motor learning; however, research in children is limited. Moreover, research has failed to examine these factors in ecologically valid motor learning settings, like physical education. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of external focus of attention when delivered using autonomy-supportive or controlling instructional language on children’s motor learning. Thirty-three novice participants (10.30 ± 0.52 years) practiced a land-based curling task under supportive (external-focus instructions delivered with supportive language), controlling (external-focus instructions delivered with controlling language), or neutral (external instructions embedded in the task aim) conditions before completing a retention and transfer test. The supportive group produced higher positive affect after practice and greater accuracy in the retention test compared with the other groups. The findings provide support for the OPTIMAL (optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning) theory of motor learning that combining an external focus and autonomy support conditions improves motor learning.

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Barriers and Enablers for Physical Activity Engagement Among Individuals From India With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed-Method Study

Prabhath Matpady, Arun G. Maiya, Pallavi P. Saraswat, Chythra R. Rao, Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Shekarappa D. Anupama, Jeevan K. Shetty, and Shashikiran Umakanth

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic condition that can cause multiple complications due to poor glycemic control. Self-management plays a crucial role in the management of T2DM. Lifestyle modifications, including physical activity (PA), are fundamental for self-management. This study explored the knowledge, perception, practice, enablers, and barriers of PA among individuals with T2DM. Methods: A mixed-method study was conducted among individuals with T2DM in Udupi taluk, India. A cross-sectional survey (n = 467) followed by an in-depth interview (n = 35) was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis, respectively. Results: About half (48.8%) of the participants engaged in PA of which 28.3% had an adequate score in the practice of PA. Walking was the most preferred mode. Self-realization, Comprehension, perception, and source of information, PA training, Current PA practices, enablers and barriers for PA were 6 themes derived under knowledge, perception, and practice of PA. Conclusion: Despite knowing the importance of PA, compliance with PA was poor. The personal/internal, societal, and external factors constituted the trinity of barriers and enablers in compliance with PA. Behavioral changes, societal changes, policy initiatives, and PA training in health care settings may enhance PA practice among individuals with T2DM.

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Continuing Professional Development in Physical Education: Future Directions and Lessons Learned

Ben D. Kern and Kevin Patton

Demand for supporting the delivery of high-quality physical education (PE) has never been more important, and continuing professional development (CPD) that results in changes in PE teachers’ practices and improvements in student learning outcomes is in short supply. PE-CPD has historically fallen short of meeting this end, though there are written descriptions of successful PE-CPD spanning the past 4 decades. In this paper, we examine shared features of effective PE-CPD, identify and review gaps in PE-CPD literature, and discuss lessons learned to enhance future efforts by policymakers and stakeholders responsible for designing, planning, and facilitating learning opportunities for physical educators. We conclude with a critical discourse challenging readers to consider the following four questions: (a) What is the purpose of CPD? (b) What is worth knowing regarding CPD? (c) What can be done to improve the quality and quantity of CPD? and (d) Who should be doing something about it?