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Methodological Rigor in Reference Chart Development: A Comment on “Normative Reference Centiles for Sprint Performance in High-Level Youth Soccer Players: The Need to Consider Biological Maturity”

Lorenzo Lolli

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Oxford Textbook of Children’s Sport and Exercise Medicine, Fourth Edition

Keith Tolfrey

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Are Young Female Basketball Players Adequately Prepared for a Force–Velocity Jumping and Sprinting Assessment?

Jessica Rial-Vázquez, Iván Nine, María Rúa-Alonso, Juan Fariñas, Roberto Fernández-Seoane, Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Miguel Fernández-del-Olmo, and Eliseo Iglesias-Soler

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the interday reliability of mechanical variables obtained from the horizontal and vertical force–velocity (FV) profiles in adolescent female basketball players. If found to be reliable, the associations between FV parameters (theoretical maximal force, velocity, and power), squat jump (SJ) height, 30-m sprint, and change of direction (COD) times were evaluated. Methods: After familiarization, SJ against incremental loads, 30-m sprint, and 505-COD tests were obtained twice in 36 adolescent female basketball players (age = 15.4 [1.2] y). Results: Reliability for vertical FV parameters was unacceptable, whereas 505-COD times and FV horizontal parameters (except for theoretical maximal power) showed a moderate to high reliability. 505-COD time was correlated with FV horizontal parameters (range: r = −.821, −.451), and a large association was observed with both SJ height (r = −.678, −.600) and 30-m sprint time (r = .813, .858). Conclusions: Due to low levels of strength, our athletes were not adequately prepared to obtain a reliable vertical FV profile. Practitioners can expect acceptable reliability of the horizontal FV profile. Given the association between COD performance and SJ height and 30-m sprint time, we encouraged practitioners with limited equipment at their disposal to use COD and/or 30-m sprint tests.

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Independent and Combined Associations of Physical Activity and Screen Time With Biomarkers of Inflammation in Children and Adolescents With Overweight/Obesity

Yijian Ding and Xi Xu

Purpose: Inflammation regulation is important for obesity management and prevention of obesity-related diseases. This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the independent and combined associations of physical activity and screen time with biomarkers of inflammation in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. Method: A total of 1289 children and adolescents with overweight/obesity were included from the 2015 to 2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted for the association analyses. Results: For the independent associations, a negative dose-dependent relationship was demonstrated between physical activity and inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P < .001) but not children; screen time was not associated with hsCRP in both children and adolescents. No significant association was found between physical activity or screen time with other inflammatory biomarkers. For the combined associations, there was an interaction between physical activity and screen time on hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity (P = .014). In addition, the negative association between physical activity and hsCRP was greater in boys compared with girls and in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black individuals compared with non-Hispanic White individuals. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a combined association of physical activity and screen time with inflammatory biomarker hsCRP in adolescents with overweight/obesity.

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Physical Activity and Motor Skill Development During Early Childhood: Investigating the Role of Parent Support

Maeghan E. James, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Matthew Kwan, Sara King-Dowling, and John Cairney

Purpose: This study examined the relationship between parent physical activity (PA) support and children’s motor skill development and PA during early childhood and explored the potential moderating effect of child PA and motor skills on these relationships. Methods: Participants (N = 589, 250 girls, meanage = 4.93 [0.59] y) were part of a larger, longitudinal cohort study. Motor skills were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Five items were used to measure parent support frequency (1 = none, 3 = 3–4 times, 5 = daily). Moderation analyses were conducted to examine the moderating effect of MVPA and motor skills on the relationship between parent support and motor skills and MVPA, respectively. Results: Parent support was significantly related to motor skills (B = 14.45, P = .007), and child MVPA significantly moderated this relationship (B = −0.17, P = .021). The relationship between parent support and child MVPA did not reach significance (B = 2.89, P = .051); however, motor skills had a significant moderating effect (B = −0.08, P = .022). Conclusions: These novel findings suggest parent PA support is related to child motor skills and PA during early childhood, but this relationship is context dependent. Child-level characteristics should be considered in future parent PA support research.

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Long-Term Alterations in Pulmonary V ˙ O 2 and Muscle Deoxygenation On-Kinetics During Heavy-Intensity Exercise in Competitive Youth Cyclists: A Cohort Study

Matthias Hovorka, Bernhard Prinz, Dieter Simon, Manfred Zöger, Clemens Rumpl, and Alfred Nimmerichter

Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to assess alterations of pulmonary oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) and muscle deoxygenation on-kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling in youth cyclists over a period of 15 months. Methods: Eleven cyclists (initial age, 14.3 [1.6] y; peak V ˙ O 2 , 62.2 [4.5] mL·min−1·kg−1) visited the laboratory twice on 3 occasions within 15 months. Participants performed an incremental ramp exercise test and a constant workrate test within the heavy-intensity domain during the first visit and second visit, respectively. Subsequently, parameter estimates of the V ˙ O 2 and muscle deoxygenation on-kinetics were determined with mono-exponential models. Results: The V ˙ O 2 phase II time constant decreased from occasion 1 (34 [4] s) to occasion 2 (30 [4] s, P = .005) and 3 (28 [4] s, P = .010). However, no significant alteration was observed between occasions 2 and 3 (P = .565). The V ˙ O 2 slow component amplitude either expressed in absolute values (ie, L·min−1) or relative to end exercise V ˙ O 2 (ie, %) showed no significant changes throughout the study (P = .972 and .996). Furthermore, the muscle deoxygenation on-kinetic mean response time showed no significant changes throughout the study (18 [8], 18 [3], and 16 [5] s for occasions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P = .279). Conclusion: These results indicate proportional enhancements of local muscle oxygen distribution and utilization, which both contributed to the speeding of the V ˙ O 2 on-kinetics herein.

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Maximal Aerobic Power, Quality of Life, and Ejection Fraction in Survivors of Childhood Cancer Treated with Anthracyclines

Maritza Martínez Tagle, Pavel Loeza Magaña, Alma Edith Benito Reséndiz, Iliana Lucatero Lecona, Farina Esther Arreguín González, and Alberto Chávez Delgado

Background: Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is a frequent complication that can occur at any stage of treatment, even in survivors. Objective: To determine maximum aerobic power, quality of life, and left ventricular ejection fraction in childhood cancer survivors treated with anthracyclines. Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Methods: The left ventricular ejection fraction was obtained from the transthoracic echocardiogram report in the medical records. Each patient underwent a 6-minute walk test, assessment of maximum aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, and evaluation of perceived exertion using the EPInfant scale, and finally, their quality of life was evaluated using the pediatric quality of life inventory model. Results: A total of 12 patients were studied, with an average of 16.2 years of age. All patients exhibited a left ventricular ejection fraction >60%, the mean distance covered in the 6-minute walk test was 516.7 m, and the mean of the maximum aerobic power was 70 W. Low quality of life scores were obtained in the physical and psychosocial aspects. In the Pearson test, a weak correlation without statistical significance was found between all the variables studied. Conclusions: Simultaneously with the detection of cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer survivors, it is pertinent to perform physical evaluations as physical condition and cardiotoxicity seem to be issues that are not necessarily dependent.

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Parental Travel Behaviors and Children’s Independent Mobility: A MultiSite Study

Victoria Hecker, Sebastien Blanchette, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche

Purpose: Children who are allowed greater independent mobility (IM) are more physically active. This study investigated associations between parents’ current travel mode to work, their own IM and school travel mode as a child, and their child’s IM. Methods: Children in grades 4 to 6 (n = 1699) were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural schools in Vancouver, Ottawa, and Trois-Rivières. Parents reported their current travel mode to work, IM, and school travel mode as a child. Children self-reported their IM using Hillman’s 6 mobility licenses. Multiple imputation was performed to replace missing data. Gender-stratified generalized linear mixed models were adjusted for child age, parent gender, urbanization, and socioeconomic status. Results: The older a parent was allowed to travel alone as a child, the less IM their child had (boys: β = −0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.13 to −0.04; girls: β = −0.09, 95% CI, −0.13 to −0.06). Girls whose parents biked to work (β = 0.45, 95% CI, 0.06–0.83) or lived in Trois-Rivières versus other sites (β = 0.82, 95% CI, −0.43 to 1.21) had higher IM. IM increased with each year of age (boys: β = 0.46, CI, 0.34–0.58; girls: β = 0.38, 95% CI, 0.28–0.48). Conclusion: Parents who experienced IM later may be more restrictive of their child’s IM. This may help explain the intergenerational decline in children’s IM.

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Volume 36 (2024): Issue 2 (May 2024)

Open access

A 5-Week Guided Active Play Program Modulates Skin Microvascular Reactivity in Healthy Children

Asal Moghaddaszadeh, Emilie Roudier, Heather Edgell, Agnes Vinet, and Angelo N. Belcastro

Purpose: Children’s poor levels of physical activity (PA) participation and early-onset vascular aging are identified as global health challenges. Children’s guided activity play (GAP)-based PA programs have emerged as effective strategies to improve cardiovascular risk factors and health-related fitness. This study proposes to investigate whether GAP improves children’s cutaneous microvascular reactivity and health-related fitness. Methods: Children’s (n = 18; 9.8 [1.5] y) PA during a 5-week (4 d/wk; 1 h/d) GAP program was assessed (accelerometry) with preassessments and postassessments for anthropometric, musculoskeletal fitness, blood pressure, estimated aerobic power, and cutaneous microvascular reactivity. Results: PA averaged 556 (132) kcal·week−1 at 34.7% (7.5%) time at moderate to vigorous intensity. Resting heart rate (−9.5%) and diastolic blood pressure (−7.8%) were reduced without changes in health-related fitness indices. Cutaneous microvascular reactivity to sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis increased the average perfusion (+36.8%), average cutaneous vascular conductance (+30%), the area under the curve (+28.8%), and a faster rise phase (+40%) of perfusion (quadratic modeling; P ≤ .05). Chi-square and crosstabulation analysis revealed significant association between children’s PA levels and sodium nitroprusside average perfusion levels, where children with PA levels ≥205.1 kcal.55 minute−1 were overrepresented in the medium/high levels of sodium nitroprusside perfusion. Conclusion: A 5-week GAP modified the microvascular reactivity in children without changes in body mass, musculoskeletal fitness, or estimated aerobic power.