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Fabiane de Oliveira Brauner, Anelise Ineu Figueiredo, Matheus de Souza Urbanetto, Rafael Reimann Baptista, Aniuska Schiavo, and Régis Gemerasca Mestriner

The 180° turn phase of the test may better differentiate the oldest-old regarding their history of falls. This is a case-control study designed to detect the ability of the 180° turn timed up and go (TUG) phase to detect a history of falls in the oldest-old. Sixty people aged 85 years and older were assessed in their homes. The single-task and dual-task TUG tests were performed using an inertial sensor (G-Walk). Sociodemographic data, physical activity levels, mental status, depressive symptoms, concern for falls occurrence, number of medicines in use, self-perception of balance, and the functional reach test were also assessed. The logistic regressions revealed the 180° turn phase of both the single-task and dual-task TUG was almost three times better than the full TUG test to detect a history of falls, thus providing insights that can be used to better assess functional mobility in the oldest-old.

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Alexander Ivan B. Posis, John Bellettiere, Rany M. Salem, Michael J. LaMonte, JoAnn E. Manson, Ramon Casanova, Andrea Z. LaCroix, and Aladdin H. Shadyab

The goal of this study was to examine associations between accelerometer-measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) with mortality by a genetic risk score (GRS) for longevity. Among 5,446 women, (mean [SD]: age, 78.2 [6.6] years), 1,022 deaths were observed during 33,350 person-years of follow-up. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, higher light PA and moderate to vigorous PA were associated with lower mortality across all GRS for longevity categories (low/medium/high; all p trend < .001). Higher ST was associated with higher mortality (p trend across all GRS categories < .001). Interaction tests for PA and ST with the GRS were not statistically significant. Findings support the importance of higher PA and lower ST for reducing mortality risk in older women, regardless of genetic predisposition for longevity.

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Solange Parra-Soto, Craig Tumblety, Carolina Araya, Leandro F.M. Rezende, Frederick K. Ho, Jill P. Pell, and Carlos Celis-Morales

Purpose: Although physical activity (PA) has been consistently associated with breast cancer, existing evidence is limited to self-reported physical activity, which is prone to dilution bias. Therefore, this aims to examine the associations of device-measured PA domains with breast cancer risk and whether it differs by menopausal status. Methods: Prospective cohort study. Data from 48,286 women from the UK Biobank cohort were analyzed. A wrist triaxial accelerometer was used to collect physical activity data for light, moderate, vigorous, moderate to vigorous, and total PA. Cox proportional models were performed to examine the association between PA domains, menopausal status, and breast cancer risk. Results: Eight hundred thirty-six breast cancer cases were diagnosed during a median of 5.4 years (interquartile range: 4.7–5.9). For total PA, those in the most active quartile had a 26% lower risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61–0.91) compared with those least active. Similar results were observed for light PA (HR: 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96), and moderate to vigorous PA (HR: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.96). However, moderate PA (HR: 0.73; 95% CI, 0.44–1.19) and vigorous PA (HR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.56–1.05) was nonsignificant. No evidence of interaction between PA domains and menopause status was found (P > .10). Conclusion: High levels of PA are associated with a lower risk of breast cancer with similar magnitude of associations observed across different intensity domains.

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Tyler J. Davis, Derek J. Hevel, Genevieve F. Dunton, and Jaclyn P. Maher

This paper examines the within-day, bidirectional associations between physical activity and self-reported pain among older adults. Older adults (N = 104; range: 60–98 years) participated in a 10-day Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study. Participants received six EMA prompts/day with a single item assessing pain. Participants wore an activPAL monitor measuring step counts. At the within-person level, on occasions when participants took more steps than usual in the 30 min before the EMA prompt, they were more likely to experience pain at the prompt ( β ^ 02 = 0.0003 , p < .03). At the between-person level, greater step counts in the 30 min before the EMA prompt, on average, were associated with less pain on occasions when pain was experienced ( β ^ 01 = 0.0005 , p < .04). Pain was not related to subsequent stepping. Bidirectional associations between physical activity and pain were not documented, but physical activity did appear to be related to subsequent pain.

Open access

Mark W. Orme, Phoebe H.I. Lloyd-Evans, Akila R. Jayamaha, Winceslaus Katagira, Bruce Kirenga, Ilaria Pina, Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Ben Maylor, Sally J. Singh, and Alex V. Rowlands

Albert Einstein taught us that “everything is relative.” People’s experience of physical activity (PA) is no different, with “relativism” particularly pertinent to the perception of intensity. Markers of absolute and relative intensities of PA have different but complimentary utilities, with absolute intensity considered best for PA guideline adherence and relative intensity for personalized exercise prescription. Under the paradigm of exercise and PA as medicine, our Technical Note proposes a method of synchronizing accelerometry with the incremental shuttle walking test to facilitate description of the intensity of the free-living PA profile in absolute and relative terms. Our approach is able to generate and distinguish “can do” or “cannot do” (based on exercise capacity) and “does do” or “does not do” (based on relative intensity PA) classifications in a chronic respiratory disease population, facilitating the selection of potential appropriate individually tailored interventions. By synchronizing direct assessments of exercise capacity and PA, clearer insights into the intensity of PA performed during everyday life can be gleaned. We believe the next steps are as follows: (1) to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of using relative and absolute intensities in combination to personalize the approach, (2) to determine its sensitivity to change following interventions (eg, exercise-based rehabilitation), and (3) to explore the use of this approach in healthier populations and in other long-term conditions.

Open access

Priya Patel, Xuedi Li, Charles D.G. Keown-Stoneman, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Laura M. Kinlin, Jonathon L. Maguire, and Catherine S. Birken

Background: Children’s movement behaviors have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic; however, little is known regarding movement behavior patterns over time by government-issued lockdowns. Our primary objective was to evaluate how children’s movement behaviors changed by stages of lockdown/reopening in Ontario, Canada, from 2020 to 2021. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study with repeated measures of exposure and outcomes was conducted. The exposure variables were dates from before and during COVID-19 when child movement behavior questionnaires were completed. Lockdown/reopening dates were included as knot locations in the spline model. The outcomes were daily screen, physical activity, outdoor, and sleep time. Results: A total of 589 children with 4805 observations were included (53.1% boys, 5.9 [2.6] y). On average, screen time increased during the first and second lockdowns and decreased during the second reopening. Physical activity and outdoor time increased during the first lockdown, decreased during the first reopening, and increased during the second reopening. Younger children (<5 y) had greater increases in screen time and lower increases in physical activity and outdoor time than older children (≥5 y). Conclusions: Policy makers should consider the impact of lockdowns on child movement behaviors, especially in younger children.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Matt Hoffman, Christopher Hill, Sascha Leisterer, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, and Matthew Stork

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Emily E. Gerstle, Kristian O’Connor, Kevin G. Keenan, Brooke A. Slavens, and Stephen C. Cobb

Despite the higher injury rate of falls on steps versus level ground, few studies have examined the influence of age and fall history on step descent. The purpose of this study was to determine the lead and trail limb neuromuscular function (peak joint moments and powers, electromyographic activity) differences between young females (n = 15) and older females with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) a fall history while descending a single step. Trail limb moments and powers did not differ between groups. Lead limb sagittal plane powers at the hip and knee were greater in the young adults. Electromyographic co-activation levels (knee and ankle) were not significantly different between groups. However, peroneal activation was greater in the older groups, which may have assisted in stabilizing the ankle joint in lieu of increased co-activation at the ankle. These results demonstrate consideration of step descent is important in working with older women at risk of falls.

Free access

Markel Rico-González

The present article aimed to systematically summarize primary school-based intervention programs and their effects evaluated through randomized-controlled trial design. A systematic review of relevant articles was carried out using 4 electronic databases. From a total of 193 studies initially found, 30 were included in the qualitative synthesis. Main results: (1) Intensive interval training or jump/strength exercises may positively influence physical fitness, promoting challenging task, psychological needs, and guided styles to a greater extent; (2) Games that demand more cognitive function seem more beneficial than those based on repetitive aerobic exertion to improve fundamental motor skills; (3) The jumping/strength exercises may cause benefits in bone area and bone mineral density, while flexibility and balance may reduce the risk of muscle injury; and (4) Programming a greater dose of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity seems to be related to positive effects in core executive function and academic performance. Additionally, providing information and involving the social environment may enhance the positive effects.

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Courtney C. Kennedy, Patricia Hewston, George Ioannidis, Bonaventure Egbujie, Sharon Marr, Ahmed Negm, Justin Lee, Genevieve Hladysh, Richard Sztramko, Tricia Woo, Brian Misiaszek, Christopher Patterson, and Alexandra Papaioannou

GERAS DANcing for Cognition and Exercise is a therapeutic dance program for older adults with cognitive or mobility impairments. Using a pre-/posttest study design, we investigated the effect of 12 weeks of dance on the short performance physical battery (SPPB). In 107 participants aged 61–93 (mean 76.1, SD = 7.0; 20% men), over 90% had multifrailty and/or cognitive impairment. The mean attendance rate was 18/24 classes (75%). A substantial minimal clinically important difference (>0.4) occurred for SPPB total (+0.53, SD = 2.04, p = .002) and chair stands (+0.45, SD = 0.92, p < .001). Individuals with baseline SPPB ≤8 points (n = 38)—indicative of sarcopenia and physical frailty—had the most marked improvement (SPPB total: +1.45, SD = 1.97, p < .001; balance: +0.65, SD = 1.27, p = .006; chair stands: +0.68, SD = 0.97, p < .001). GERAS DANcing for Cognition and Exercise may be a promising rehabilitation intervention to improve daily physical function.