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A 20-Year Systematic Review of Before- and After-School Physical Activity Research (2000–2020)

Risto Marttinen, Alba Rodrigues, Oscar Nuñez-Enriquez, Erin Centeio, and Dominique Banville

Purpose: This systematic review aimed at identifying, categorizing, and analyzing peer-reviewed literature on organized before- and after-school (B&ASP) physical activity programs from 2000 to 2020. Methods: We analyzed 291 articles that fit the inclusion criteria from five databases. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guidelines were followed. Results: Research on B&ASPs has increased and been published in 157 journals across 26 countries. Most studies were quantitative. Most studies used a theoretical or conceptual framework and reported reliability, validity, and trustworthiness. Varied additional foci of impact were reported through different physical activities. However, physical activity was usually not measured. Interventions were 1–520 weeks long and conducted in different study contexts. Many studies targeted marginalized groups but did not utilize critical theory. Conclusion: Further studies should aim to better understand the nuances of B&ASPs, and critical theories could be useful. The lack of journals for B&ASP research limits scholars’ ability to move the field forward.

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An Exploration of the Use of Twitter as a Professional Development Platform for In-Service Secondary School Physical Educators

Olivia Haslam and Ashley Casey

Purpose: To explore secondary school physical educators’ use of Twitter (now X) for professional development, examining engagement patterns and evolution over time through the lens of sense of community theory. Method: Sixty-one secondary school physical educators completed a questionnaire shared on Twitter (now X). Ten teachers also completed individual semistructured interviews. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Three themes were constructed: (a) physical educator Twitter engagement and its impact, (b) evolution of educators Twitter use over time, and (c) opportunities and advice for physical educators. Discussion/Conclusion: This study explored how physical educators use Twitter (X) for professional development and highlighted its impact on teaching practices, networking, and professional opportunities while noting concerns about the pressure of being perfect and the control exerted by X’s algorithms. Future research should assess the consistency of these findings and explore Twitter’s rebranding to X and its implications for users’ community sense and engagement.

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Validity of Synchronous Online Physical Education Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic

Janet S. Mariano and Luisito S. Macapagal

Purpose: Various online physical education activities and methods have been applied to colleges in the Philippines during the COVID-19 confinement. However, much remains unknown about the effects of the physical activity given to students. This study aimed to analyze the validity of online synchronous physical education classes using a progressive cardio workout program among college students. Method: One hundred and ninety-four physical education students enrolled in morning class voluntarily participated. Baseline and posttest measures included resting heart rates, training heart rates, heart rate recovery (HRR), and the YMCA 3-min step test (YMCA 3MST). Results: The progressive cardio workout program over the 8 weeks significantly improved the training heart rate of the participants, X 2 F (7) = 475.397, p = .001. Also, there is a significant difference between pretest HRR (Mdn = 24) from posttest HRR (Mdn = 16), W = 10,863, p < .001. The pretest HRR was significantly higher than the posttest HRR, the rank–biserial correlation, r B  = .586, suggests that this is a large effect size. Further, the pretest YMCA 3MST (Mdn = 120.5) was significantly different from the posttest YMCA 3MST (Mdn = 116), W = 10,946, p < .001, the rank–biserial correlation, r B  = .286, suggests that this is a small to medium effect size. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the 8-week progressive cardio workout program significantly improves the participants’ cardiorespiratory fitness based on the pre- and posttraining heart rate, HRR, and YMCA 3MST results.

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“En el buen camino”: Colaboración entre maestros e investigadores para la implementación del aprendizaje cooperativo en la educación física de educación primaria

Joan Arumí-Prat, Gemma Torres-Cladera, and Gil Pla-Campas

Propósito : Dada la dificultad existente en la implementación de los Modelo Basado en la Práctica (MBP) en la educación física (EF) expresada en la literatura, se presenta un estudio sobre la aplicación del Aprendizaje Cooperativo (AC) en la EF de primaria. Método : Un equipo investigador trans-institucional (escuela-universidad) experto en AC, supervisó y desarrolló un análisis temático narrativo de caso único a partir de los relatos autoetnográficos creativos, pero no ficticios, de una maestra de EF de 5° curso. Resultados : Se presentan cinco relatos no ficcionales que narran en crudo eventos significativos de cada una de las condiciones básicas de la AC. Discusión/Conclusión : La investigación evidencia el valor de las narrativas como motor de reflexión educativa que contribuye a mostrar la complejidad en la aplicación del AC en un aula y a disminuir la brecha existente entre la teoría de los MBP y su aplicación práctica.

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Are Gender Stereotypes Still Prevalent in Physical Education? Spanish Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Gender Equity

Marina Castro-García, Carmen Barquero-Ruiz, and Cristina López-Villar

Purpose: Grounded in doing gender theory, the purpose is to explore physical education teachers’ and students’ beliefs and attitudes toward gender equity in physical education and sports and to identify possible aspects to be addressed. Method: This is a cross-sectional study in which a random sampling by multistage clusters was followed. Participants included 90 physical education teachers and 644 secondary school students, who completed two different questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t tests, one-factor analysis of variance, and two-way analysis of variance comparisons. Findings: Most students and teachers showed equitable beliefs and attitudes at a sociocultural level. The intersection of teachers’ age and self-identified sex/gender, and the self-identified sex/gender of students, played a significant role in the stereotypes. There was a gap between teachers’ results and students’ perceptions. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the need to implement critical feminist curricular approaches, especially with preservice teachers. Moreover, it is important that these approaches work on masculinities.

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Exploring Solidarity in Action: Key Methodological Features for Collaborative Research in Physical Education

Luiz Gustavo Bonatto Rufino, Cassandra Iannucci, Deniz Hunuk, Carla Vidoni, Carla Nascimento Luguetti, Luiza Lana Gonçalves, Heidi Jancer Ferreira, Paula Batista, Cecilia Borges, Ann MacPhail, Luiz Sanches Neto, and Samuel de Souza Neto

Purpose: This paper delves into the approach of solidarity in action as a collaborative research methodology in the field of physical education, based on Freire’s concepts of solidarity and circle of culture. In a landscape marked by competitiveness and hierarchy, this paper emphasizes the importance of mutual understanding, empathy, and collective struggle for social change in academia. Results: The paper explores a case study of an international project and highlights three key features: (a) intentionality in group creation, (b) levels of collaboration and horizontal relationships, and (c) democratic facilitation. These features stress the importance of collective action, open dialogue, and shared responsibility. Solidarity in action emerges as a methodology designed to cultivate communities, promote critical engagement, and address social injustices. Conclusion: By integrating solidarity in action into research, the paper advocates for a more inclusive, equitable, and culturally sensitive approach in physical education, highlighting the potential for positive change in academia.

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Preparing Teachers for Physical Activity Leadership: Status of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program in Physical Education Teacher Education

Hayley B. McKown, Christopher B. Merica, and Cate A. Egan

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to better understand Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) curricular offerings related to physical activity leadership training competencies that occur within physical education teacher education programs across the United States. Methods: Physical education teacher education program stakeholders were emailed an online survey about physical activity leadership training competencies and CSPAP training in physical education teacher education. A total of 142 participants (28% response rate) completed the survey. Descriptive statistics were used, and open-ended questions were analyzed. Results: Participants reported training preservice physical education teachers in CSPAP components: quality physical education (84%), physical activity before/after school (61%), physical activity during school (78%), staff involvement (50%), and family and community engagement (64%). Reported physical activity leadership competency training for preservice physical education teachers included: physical activity content knowledge (99%), leadership competencies (93%), communication and promotion (38%), and collaboration competencies (78%). Discussion/Conclusion: Training classroom teachers and physical education teachers to promote, sustain, and implement CSPAPs is vital to CSPAP uptake in schools.

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Start to Move: Measuring the Feasibility of a Teacher-Led Digital Fundamental Movement Skills Assessment Tool

Tom van Rossum, Lawrence Foweather, Spencer Hayes, and David Morley

Purpose : This study evaluated the feasibility of the “Start to Move” (S2M) digital assessment of children’s fundamental movement skills being implemented by primary school teachers within PE lessons. Methods: Nine primary school teachers in the United Kingdom trialed S2M weekly over a 6-week period. Posttrial surveys and interviews were used to ascertain responses. Results: Feasibility was measured using seven dimensions of Bowen et al. framework; acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, adaptation, integration, and expansion. Acceptance and demand of S2M was high with participants feeling that its contents aligned to the PE curriculum. Participants were able to implement S2M with PE lessons without assistance and stated that they would continue to use it within their teaching. They felt S2M would enhance their teaching and would recommend it to other teachers. Discussion/Conclusion: S2M is feasible for primary teachers to implement within PE lessons and has the potential to heighten the use of assessment for learning within PE in primary schools.

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Physical Education Access in U.S. Public Schools: A Multistate, Multiregion Study

Ben D. Kern, Wesley J. Wilson, Chad Killian, Hans van der Mars, Kelly Simonton, David Woo, and Tristan Wallhead

Purpose: Our purpose was to gather and evaluate accurate, up-to-date information on physical education (PE) policy implementation across multiple U.S. states and regions. Methods: A U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy questionnaire was developed and completed by 4,845 public-school PE teachers from 25 U.S. states. The U.S. Physical Education and Physical Activity Policy assessed PE quantity (days per week and minutes per week), class sizes by grade level, and practices that limit PE access. Descriptive statistics and correlations of PE minutes per week with class size were calculated in aggregate and individually by state. Results: Aggregate PE quantities in elementary, middle school, high school, and for students with disabilities were well below the recommendations (150 min/week elementary and 225 min/week secondary) and varied between states. Average students/class varied by state, and significant positive correlations between weekly PE minutes and students/PE class were observed. Discussion: PE access is limited across the United States, and stronger commitment to PE policy and policy implementation is needed.

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Barriers and Facilitators to Including Students With Down Syndrome in Integrated Physical Education: Chilean Physical Educators’ Perspectives

Luiz Gustavo Teixeira Fabricio dos Santos, Fabián Arroyo-Rojas, Sheyla Martinez Rivera, Luis Felipe Castelli Correia de Campos, Lindsey A. Nowland, Wesley J. Wilson, and Justin A. Haegele

The purpose of this study was to explore Chilean physical educators’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to students with Down syndrome experiencing inclusion in integrated physical education. Data were collected from a cohort of 91 physical educators, comprising 50 males and 41 females from various regions in Chile, who responded to an online survey between March 2023 to June 2023. A two-step coding protocol was used to analyze responses. Cumulatively, the respondents identified 350 barriers (3.84 per participant) and 393 facilitators (4.32 per participant), which they perceived to influence feelings of inclusion among students with Down syndrome. Predominantly, factors that centered around teachers themselves were emphasized as both facilitators and barriers, as well as the role of a welcoming environment and supportive peers. This study, the first within the Chilean context, demonstrates that teachers believe that inclusiveness predominantly stems from educators’ initiatives, complemented by the surrounding environment and peer interactions.