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The Anabolic Response to Protein Ingestion During Recovery From Exercise Has No Upper Limit in Magnitude and Duration In Vivo in Humans: A Commentary

Oliver C. Witard and Samuel Mettler

A comprehensive recent study by Trommelen et al. demonstrated that muscle tissue exhibits a greater capacity to incorporate exogenous exogenous protein-derived amino acids into bound muscle protein than was previously appreciated, at least when measured in “anabolically sensitive,” recreationally active (but not resistance-trained), young men following resistance exercise. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the duration of the postprandial period is modulated by the dose of ingested protein contained within a meal, that is, the postexercise muscle protein synthesis response to protein ingestion was more prolonged in 100PRO than 25PRO. Both observations represent important scientific advances in the field of protein metabolism. However, we respectfully caution that the practical implications of these findings may have been misinterpreted, at least in terms of dismissing the concept of protein meal distribution as an important factor in optimizing muscle tissue anabolism and/or metabolic health. Moreover, based on emerging evidence, this idea that the anabolic response to protein ingestion has no upper limit does not appear to translate to resistance-trained young women.

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Physical Fitness as a Predictor of Disability Retirement: A 9-Year Register Linked Follow-Up Study

Markus Kuusela, Valtteri Pohjola, Katariina Sarttila, Matti Munukka, Riikka Holopainen, Mikko Laaksonen, Annamari Lundqvist, and Jouni Lahti

Background: To prospectively examine the association between physical fitness and risk of disability retirement in a large population-based cohort. Methods: This study utilized data from Health 2011 survey Physical Activity subsample (n = 4898), combined with information on disability retirement derived from 2 national registers. In total, 2455 individuals aged 18–74 years underwent the physical fitness test protocol concerning measures of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, and balance. The outcome variable was disability retirement, during the follow-up period of 9 years. After excluding those not at risk of disability retirement (ie, age ≥63 y) or who had already been granted disability pension, and those who had not completed the fitness protocol, the analytical sample included 1381 participants. Data were analyzed using Cox regression model with SPSS (version 29). Results: During the 9-year follow-up period, 61 individuals (4.4%) transitioned to a disability retirement. Cox regression analysis showed an association between the various physical fitness subdomains and the risk of disability retirement. In model 1, all fitness tests were associated with the risk of disability retirement, except the one-leg stand test with hazard ratios ranging from 1.69 (95% CI, 0.86–3.34) to 5.75 (95% CI, 1.84–17.90). Further adjustment for sociodemographic, health behavior, and health-related covariates attenuated the associations and statistical significance was lost, except for the vertical jump test (hazard ratio = 4.33; 95% CI, 1.32–14.10) and 6-minute walk test (hazard ratio = 3.81; 95% CI, 1.35–10.70). Conclusion: These findings highlight the importance of physical fitness for preventing work disability.

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Protein Intake Distribution: Beneficial, Detrimental, or Inconsequential for Muscle Anabolism? Response to Witard & Mettler

Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M. Holwerda, and Luc J.C. van Loon

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Do Motor–Cognitive and Motor–Motor Dual-Task Training Differently Affect Dual-Task Interference in Individuals With Intellectual Disability?

Rihab Borji, Rym Baccouch, Rabeb Laatar, Sirine Falhi, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

This study explored the effect of different dual-task (DT) training programs on DT interference in adults with intellectual disability. Center-of-pressure (CoP) mean velocity in single-task (ST) and cognitive-DT conditions and the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUGT) during ST, cognitive-DT, and motor-DT conditions were assessed before and after intervention in a cognitive–motor training group, a motor–motor training group, and a control group. Before training, CoP mean velocity and TUGT time increased (p < .001) in DT compared with the ST condition. After training, the CoP mean velocity values remained unchanged (p = .07) in DT compared with the ST condition among the cognitive–motor training group. Furthermore, compared with the ST condition, no increase (p = 1) was reported in the TUGT time during the cognitive-DT condition for the cognitive–motor training group and during the motor-DT for the motor–motor training group (p = .12). The effect of DT training on DT interference depends on the training modality.

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Evaluating the Validity of Tests to Predict Sprint and Change of Direction Speed in Para-Athletes With Brain Impairments

Raul Reina, Emma M. Beckman, Mark J. Connick, Jemima G. Spathis, and Sean M. Tweedy

Maximum running speed is a performance determinant in para-athletics and cerebral palsy football. Sixty international para-athletes with brain impairments completed five activity-limitation tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, 10-m speed skip, and running in place) and two criterion tests (40-m sprint and modified agility test). The same three tests (standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, and 10-m speed skip) that correlated with running performance in nondisabled runners (.67 < r < −.82; p < .05; 75% of variance) also correlated in para-athletes with brain impairments (.41 < r <  −.62; p < .01; 55% of variance). Standing broad jump, four bounds for distance, split jumps, and running in place also correlated with change-of-direction speed (.43 < r <  −.63; p < .01; 58% of variance). Results indicate that methods of classification for para-athletics with nondisabled runners are also valid with para-athletes with brain impairments, and new sport-specific relationships were found for assessing the performance of rapid and short sprints toward different directions, specific of a team para-sport like cerebral palsy football.

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Impact of Sport Engagement and Social Support on the Health-Related Quality of Life of Youth Athletes With Physical Disabilities

Myung Ha Sur, Deborah R. Shapiro, and Jeffrey Martin

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multidimensional concept focusing on the impact of health status on quality of life. The purpose of this study was to examine if sport engagement and sport-specific social support predicted HRQOL among adolescents with physical disabilities. Sixty-eight participants completed surveys assessing sport engagement, sport-specific social support, and HRQOL. Participants had moderate to high perceptions of sport engagement, social support, and HRQOL supporting the affirmation model of disability. Based on a canonical correlation, esteem, information, and tangible social support and sport engagement—confidence—were the strongest predictor variables of the sport engagement/social support variant, which was linked to the HRQOL variant predicted by emotional, social, and school functioning. The findings support the importance of social support and confidence in the sport context for the HRQOL of youth with physical disabilities.

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Introducing IJSPP’s First Reviewer Incentive: A Submission-Fee Waiver

Dionne A. Noordhof and Øyvind Sandbakk

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Volume 41 (2024): Issue 3 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 34 (2024): Issue 4 (Jul 2024)

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Volume 19 (2024): Issue 7 (Jul 2024)