Volume 34 (2024): Issue 2 (Mar 2024)
Volume 18 (2024): Issue 1 (Mar 2024)
Academic Life: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Robert P. Lamberts and N. Tim Cable
Autonomy-Supportive, External-Focus Instructions Optimize Children’s Motor Learning in Physical Education
Thomas Simpson, Mitchell Finlay, Victoria Simpson, Ayoub Asadi, Paul Ellison, Evelyn Carnegie, and David Marchant
An external focus of attention and autonomy support are identified as key factors to optimize motor learning; however, research in children is limited. Moreover, research has failed to examine these factors in ecologically valid motor learning settings, like physical education. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of external focus of attention when delivered using autonomy-supportive or controlling instructional language on children’s motor learning. Thirty-three novice participants (10.30 ± 0.52 years) practiced a land-based curling task under supportive (external-focus instructions delivered with supportive language), controlling (external-focus instructions delivered with controlling language), or neutral (external instructions embedded in the task aim) conditions before completing a retention and transfer test. The supportive group produced higher positive affect after practice and greater accuracy in the retention test compared with the other groups. The findings provide support for the OPTIMAL (optimizing performance through intrinsic motivation and attention for learning) theory of motor learning that combining an external focus and autonomy support conditions improves motor learning.
Barriers and Enablers for Physical Activity Engagement Among Individuals From India With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mixed-Method Study
Prabhath Matpady, Arun G. Maiya, Pallavi P. Saraswat, Chythra R. Rao, Mamatha Shivananda Pai, Shekarappa D. Anupama, Jeevan K. Shetty, and Shashikiran Umakanth
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic condition that can cause multiple complications due to poor glycemic control. Self-management plays a crucial role in the management of T2DM. Lifestyle modifications, including physical activity (PA), are fundamental for self-management. This study explored the knowledge, perception, practice, enablers, and barriers of PA among individuals with T2DM. Methods: A mixed-method study was conducted among individuals with T2DM in Udupi taluk, India. A cross-sectional survey (n = 467) followed by an in-depth interview (n = 35) was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis, respectively. Results: About half (48.8%) of the participants engaged in PA of which 28.3% had an adequate score in the practice of PA. Walking was the most preferred mode. Self-realization, Comprehension, perception, and source of information, PA training, Current PA practices, enablers and barriers for PA were 6 themes derived under knowledge, perception, and practice of PA. Conclusion: Despite knowing the importance of PA, compliance with PA was poor. The personal/internal, societal, and external factors constituted the trinity of barriers and enablers in compliance with PA. Behavioral changes, societal changes, policy initiatives, and PA training in health care settings may enhance PA practice among individuals with T2DM.
Continuing Professional Development in Physical Education: Future Directions and Lessons Learned
Ben D. Kern and Kevin Patton
Demand for supporting the delivery of high-quality physical education (PE) has never been more important, and continuing professional development (CPD) that results in changes in PE teachers’ practices and improvements in student learning outcomes is in short supply. PE-CPD has historically fallen short of meeting this end, though there are written descriptions of successful PE-CPD spanning the past 4 decades. In this paper, we examine shared features of effective PE-CPD, identify and review gaps in PE-CPD literature, and discuss lessons learned to enhance future efforts by policymakers and stakeholders responsible for designing, planning, and facilitating learning opportunities for physical educators. We conclude with a critical discourse challenging readers to consider the following four questions: (a) What is the purpose of CPD? (b) What is worth knowing regarding CPD? (c) What can be done to improve the quality and quantity of CPD? and (d) Who should be doing something about it?
Effective Instruction and Curricular Models: What Do We Know About Student Learning Outcomes in Physical Education?
Pamela Hodges-Kulinna, Zach Wahl-Alexander, Kahyun Nam, and Christopher Kinder
This essay aims to elucidate effective teaching through the utilization of instructional models in physical education. In this essay, Rink’s seven essential teaching tasks provide the foundational structure, complemented by an examination of four legitimate student outcomes in physical education: physical, cognitive, social, and affective domains. A literature review of 222 research studies on teaching effectiveness of nine instructional models reporting on teacher behaviors and student outcomes was coded following a four-step reliability coding process to establish a consensus on the articles included. This essay serves as a resource for comprehending the application of instructional models in physical education curricula, highlighting the need for continuous research into their efficacy and the replication of studies to validate outcomes across various educational settings. In addition, it highlights the importance of integrating K–16 teacher assessment data within these models to demonstrate the educational impact across learning domains.
Physical Activity Levels, Correlates, and All-Cause Mortality Risk in People Living With Different Health Conditions
Jenny M. Marks-Vieveen, Léonie Uijtdewilligen, Ehsan Motazedi, Dominique P.M. Stijnman, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Adrie J. Bouma, Laurien M. Buffart, Vincent de Groot, Ellen de Hollander, Judith G.M. Jelsma, Johan de Jong, Helco G. van Keeken, Leonie A. Krops, Marike van der Leeden, Stephan A. Loer, Willem van Mechelen, Femke van Nassau, Joske Nauta, Evert Verhagen, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Johannes Zwerver, Rienk Dekker, and Hidde P. van der Ploeg
Background: To better understand physical activity behavior and its health benefits in people living with health conditions, we studied people with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions with regard to (1) their physical activity levels, (2) factors correlated with these physical activity levels, and (3) the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. Methods: We used a subsample (n = 88,659) of the Lifelines cohort study from the Netherlands. For people living with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions, we studied the aforementioned factors in relation to physical activity. Physical activity was assessed with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Questionnaire, and mortality data were obtained from the Dutch death register. Results: People with a reported health condition were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines than people without a reported health condition (odds ratios ranging from 0.55 to 0.89). Higher body mass index and sitting time, and lower self-rated health, physical functioning, and education levels were associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines across most health conditions. Finally, we found a protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality in both people living with and without different health conditions. Conclusion: People living with different health conditions are generally less physically active compared with people living without a health condition. Both people living with and without self-reported health conditions share a number of key factors associated with physical activity levels. We also observed the expected protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality.
Predicting Soccer Players’ Fitness Status Through a Machine-Learning Approach
Mauro Mandorino, Jo Clubb, and Mathieu Lacome
Purpose: The study had 3 purposes: (1) to develop an index using machine-learning techniques to predict the fitness status of soccer players, (2) to explore the index’s validity and its relationship with a submaximal run test (SMFT), and (3) to analyze the impact of weekly training load on the index and SMFT outcomes. Methods: The study involved 50 players from an Italian professional soccer club. External and internal loads were collected during training sessions. Various machine-learning algorithms were assessed for their ability to predict heart-rate responses during the training drills based on external load data. The fitness index, calculated as the difference between actual and predicted heart rates, was correlated with SMFT outcomes. Results: Random forest regression (mean absolute error = 3.8 [0.05]) outperformed the other machine-learning algorithms (extreme gradient boosting and linear regression). Average speed, minutes from the start of the training session, and the work:rest ratio were identified as the most important features. The fitness index displayed a very large correlation (r = .70) with SMFT outcomes, with the highest result observed during possession games and physical conditioning exercises. The study revealed that heart-rate responses from SMFT and the fitness index could diverge throughout the season, suggesting different aspects of fitness. Conclusions: This study introduces an “invisible monitoring” approach to assess soccer player fitness in the training environment. The developed fitness index, in conjunction with traditional fitness tests, provides a comprehensive understanding of player readiness. This research paves the way for practical applications in soccer, enabling personalized training adjustments and injury prevention.
Quantifying Human Gait Symmetry During Blindfolded Treadmill Walking
Otella Shoja, Masoumeh Shojaei, Hamidollah Hassanlouei, Farzad Towhidkhah, and Lei Zhang
Bilateral gait symmetry is an essential requirement for normal walking since asymmetric gait patterns increase the risk of falls and injuries. While human gait control heavily relies on the contribution of sensory inputs, the role of sensory systems in producing symmetric gait has remained unclear. This study evaluated the influence of vision as a dominant sensory system on symmetric gait production. Ten healthy adults performed treadmill walking with and without vision. Twenty-two gait parameters including ground reaction forces, joint range of motion, and other spatial–temporal gait variables were evaluated to quantify gait symmetry and compared between both visual conditions. Visual block caused increased asymmetry in most parameters of ground reaction force, however mainly in the vertical direction. When vision was blocked, symmetry of the ankle and knee joint range of motion decreased, but this change did not occur in the hip joint. Stance and swing time symmetry decreased during no-vision walking while no significant difference was found for step length symmetry between the two conditions. This study provides a comprehensive analysis to reveal how the visual system influences bilateral gait symmetry and highlights the important role of vision in gait control. This approach could be applied to investigate how vision alters gait symmetry in patients with disorders to help better understand the role of vision in pathological gaits.