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Pauliina Husu, Kari Tokola, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Harri Sievänen, Jaana Suni, Olli J. Heinonen, Jarmo Heiskanen, Kaisu M. Kaikkonen, Kai Savonen, Sami Kokko, and Tommi Vasankari

Background: Studies measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on a 24/7 basis are scarce. The present study assessed the feasibility of using an accelerometer at the hip while awake and at the wrist while sleeping to describe 24/7 patterns of physical behavior in working-aged adults by age, sex, and fitness. Methods: The study was based on the FinFit 2017 study where the physical behavior of 20- to 69-year-old Finns was assessed 24/7 by triaxial accelerometer (UKKRM42; UKK Terveyspalvelut Oy, Tampere, Finland). During waking hours, the accelerometer was kept at the right hip and, during time in bed, at the nondominant wrist. PA variables were based on 1-min exponential moving average of mean amplitude deviation of the resultant acceleration signal analyzed in 6-s epochs. The angle for the posture estimation algorithm was used to identify sedentary behavior and standing. Evaluation of time in bed was based on the wrist movement. Fitness was estimated by the 6-min walk test. Results: A total of 2,256 eligible participants (mean age 49.5 years, SD = 13.5, 59% women) wore the accelerometer at the hip 15.7 hr/day (SD = 1.4) and at the wrist 8.3 hr/day (SD = 1.4). Sedentary behavior covered 9 hr 18 min/day (SD = 1.8 hr/day), standing nearly 2 hr/day (SD = 0.9), light PA 3.7 hr/day (SD = 1.3), and moderate to vigorous PA 46 min/day (SD = 26). Participants took 7,451 steps per day (SD = 2,962) on average. Men were most active around noon, while women had activity peaks at noon and at early evening. The low-fit tertile took 1,186 and 1,747 fewer steps per day than the mid- and high-fit tertiles (both p < .001). Conclusions: One triaxial accelerometer with a two wear-site approach provides a feasible method to characterize hour-by-hour patterns of physical behavior among working-aged adults.

Open access

Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Prajwal Gyawali, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English

Background: Interrupting prolonged sitting can attenuate postprandial glucose responses in overweight adults. The dose–response effect in stroke survivors is unknown. The authors investigated the effects of interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with increasingly frequent bouts of light-intensity standing-based exercises on the postprandial glucose response in stroke survivors. Methods: Within-participant, laboratory-based, dose-escalation trial. Participants completed three 8-hour conditions: prolonged sitting and 2 experimental conditions. Experimental conditions involved light-intensity standing-based exercises of increasing frequency (2 × 5 min to 6 × 5 min bouts). Postprandial glucose is reported. Results: Twenty-nine stroke survivors (aged 66 y) participated. Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting with light-intensity standing-based exercises every 90 minutes significantly decreased postprandial glucose (positive incremental area under the curve; −1.1 mmol/L·7 h; 95% confidence interval, −2.0 to −0.1). In the morning (08:00–11:00), postprandial glucose decreased during the 4 × 5 minutes and 6 × 5 minutes conditions (positive incremental area under the curve; −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.3 to −0.3 and −0.8 mmol/L·3 h; 95% confidence interval, −1.5 to −0.2, respectively) compared with prolonged sitting. Conclusion: Interrupting 8 hours of prolonged sitting at least every 90 minutes with light-intensity standing-based exercises attenuates postprandial glucose in stroke survivors. During the morning, postprandial glucose is attenuated when sitting is interrupted every 60 and 90 minutes.

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Gregore I. Mielke, Inacio Crochemore-Silva, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Mariangela Freitas Silveira, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, and Wendy J. Brown

Background: Physical activity levels decrease during pregnancy, and the time course of return to prepregnancy levels is unclear. This study aimed to describe changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and sitting time from 16 to 24 weeks of pregnancy to 12, 24, and 48 months postpartum in women with different education levels in Brazil. Methods: Data from 4000 mothers of children enrolled in the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort were analyzed. The women were interviewed between 16 and 24 weeks of pregnancy and when their children were aged 12, 24, and 48 months. The LTPA and sitting time were self-reported. Results: Only 15.7% of the women reported any LTPA during pregnancy; this declined to 7.9% at 12 months postpartum; it was 16.8% at 24 months and 23.2% at 48 months. On average, participants spent a mean (SD) of 6.4 (3.9), 4.2 (3.2), 4.3 (3.3), and 4.4 (3.3) hours per day sitting during pregnancy, and at 12, 24, and 48 months after the birth, respectively. Both any LTPA and high sitting (8+ h/d) were consistently higher among women with higher education. Conclusion: After 24 months postpartum, LTPA levels had returned to or exceeded pregnancy levels, but sitting time remained lower than during pregnancy.

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Jennifer R. Pharr, Jason D. Flatt, Lung-Chang Chien, Axenya Kachen, and Babayemi O. Olakunde

Introduction: There is a positive association between exercise and improved mental health in the general population. Although there is a greater burden of psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, little is known about the association between exercise and mental health in this population. The authors explored the association between exercise and poor mental health reported by LGB adults in the United States. Methods: Our analyses used data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the association between exercising and mental health days adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Data were available for 6371 LGB participants. LGB adults who participated in any exercise reported almost 1.0 day less of poor mental health in the past 30 days compared with LGB adults who did not exercise (P ≤ .01). LGB adults who met one or both of the physical activity guidelines had between 1.2 and 1.7 days less of poor mental health compared with those who did not meet the guidelines (P ≤ .01). Conclusion: Fewer days of poor mental health were reported by LGB adults who exercised. Determining whether physical activity interventions, including aerobic and strengthening exercises, could improve mental health outcomes in LGB adults should be studied.

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Victor E. Ezeugwu, Piush J. Mandhane, Nevin Hammam, Jeffrey R. Brook, Sukhpreet K. Tamana, Stephen Hunter, Joyce Chikuma, Diana L. Lefebvre, Meghan B. Azad, Theo J. Moraes, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B. Becker, Stuart E. Turvey, Andrei Rosu, Malcolm R. Sears, and Valerie Carson

Background: Movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep) established in early childhood track into adulthood and interact to influence health outcomes. This study examined the associations between neighborhood characteristics and weather with movement behaviors in preschoolers. Methods: A subset of Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort (n = 385, 50.6% boys) with valid movement behaviors data were enrolled at age 3 years and followed through to age 5 years. Objective measures of neighborhood characteristics were derived by ArcGIS software, and weather variables were derived from the Government of Canada weather website. Random forest and linear mixed models were used to examine predictors of movement behaviors. Cross-sectional analyses were stratified by age and season (winter and nonwinter). Results: Neighborhood safety, temperature, green space, and roads were important neighborhood characteristics for movement behaviors in 3- and 5-year-olds. An increase in temperature was associated with greater light physical activity longitudinally from age 3 to 5 years and also in the winter at age 5 years in stratified analysis. A higher percentage of expressways was associated with less nonwinter moderate to vigorous physical activity at age 3 years. Conclusions: Future initiatives to promote healthy movement behaviors in the early years should consider age differences, neighborhood characteristics, and season.

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Matthew Hobbs, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Andrew P. Kingsnorth, Lukas Marek, Melanie Tomintz, Jesse Wiki, John McCarthy, Malcolm Campbell, and Simon Kingham

Background: This study investigates the association between television (TV) viewing and child adiposity and if parental education and child ethnicity moderate this association. Method: Cross-sectional, pooled (2013/2014–2016/2017) adult and child New Zealand Health Survey were matched resulting in 13,039 children (2–14 y) and parent dyads. Child TV viewing was estimated using self-reported time for each weekday and weekend. The height (in centimeters), weight (in kilograms), and waist circumference of parents and children were measured. Childhood body mass index and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force cutoff values. Effect modification was assessed by interaction and then by stratifying regression analyses by parent education (low, moderate, and high) and child ethnicity (Asian, European/other, Māori, and Pacific). Results: Overall, watching ≥2 hours TV on average per day in the past week, relative to <2 hours TV viewing, was associated with a higher odds of obesity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.291 [1.108–1.538]), higher body mass index z score (b = 0.123 [0.061–0.187]), and higher waist circumference (b = 0.546 [0.001–1.092]). Interactions considering this association by child ethnicity and parent education revealed little evidence of effect modification. Conclusion: While TV viewing was associated with child adiposity, the authors found little support for a moderating role of parental education and child ethnicity.

Open access

Russell R. Pate, Marsha Dowda, Ruth P. Saunders, Natalie Colabianchi, Morgan N. Clennin, Kerry L. Cordan, Geena Militello, Agnes Bucko, Dwayne E. Porter, and Wm. Lynn Shirley

Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity is higher in economically and socially deprived areas. Higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk of excessive weight gain in youth, and research has focused on environmental factors associated with children’s physical activity, though the term “physical activity desert” has not come into wide use. Methods: This exploratory study operationalized the term “physical activity desert” and tested the hypothesis that children living in physical activity deserts would be less physically active than children who do not. A cross-sectional study design was applied with 992 fifth-grade students who had provided objectively measured physical activity data. Five of 12 possible elements of the built environment were selected as descriptors of physical activity deserts, including no commercial facilities, no parks, low play spaces, no cohesion, and the presence of incivilities. Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that only the absence of parks was associated with less physical activity in children. Conclusion: Children living in a “no park” zone were less active than their counterparts who lived near a park. This study contributes preliminary conceptual and operational definitions of “physical activity desert.” Future studies of physical activity deserts should be undertaken in larger and more diverse samples.