This commentary reflects on the discussions of Whitall et al.’s paper “Motor Development Research: II. The First Two Decades of the 21st Century Shaping Our Future.” Comments focus on (a) the emergence and importance of the Developmental Systems approach to motor development, (b) the perceived ambiguity between Dynamic and Developmental Systems approaches, and (c) a case for the evolution of Developmental Motor Neuroscience from the field of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience.
Amanda Gilbert, Alan Beck, Natalicio Serrano, and Ross C. Brownson
Background: Compared with urban/suburban counterparts, rural communities experience lower rates of physical activity (PA) and higher rates of chronic disease. Promoting PA is important for disease prevention but requires reliable and valid measurement of PA. However, little is known about effectively collecting objective PA data in rural communities. Using data from a cluster randomized trial (Heartland Moves), which aims to increase PA in rural Missouri, this study explored factors associated with successful objective PA data collection and presents lessons learned. Methods: Baseline survey and accelerometry data were collected through Heartland Moves (n = 368) from August 2019 to February 2021, in southeast Missouri. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors (demographics, subjective PA, and SMS reminders) associated with valid wear of PA devices. Results: Overall, 77% had valid wears. Participants who were not married (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.79) and those living alone (OR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.30–0.81) were less likely to have valid wears. Participants who met PA guidelines (OR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.03–2.75) or received SMS reminders (OR 3.25; 95% CI, 1.97–5.38) were more likely to have valid wears. Conclusions: Results are supported by lessons learned, including importance of communication (SMS reminders), accessing hard-to-reach groups (living alone), and need to adapt during data collection.
Hilary A.T. Caldwell, Nicole A. Proudfoot, Natascja A. DiCristofaro, John Cairney, Steven R. Bray, and Brian W. Timmons
Purpose: The associations between longitudinal physical activity (PA) patterns across childhood and physical literacy have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify PA trajectories from preschool to school-age, and to determine if trajectory group membership was associated with school-age physical literacy. Methods: Participants (n = 279, 4.5 [0.9] y old, 48% girls) enrolled in this study and completed annual assessments of PA with accelerometry over 6 timepoints. Physical literacy was assessed at timepoint 6 (10.8 [1.0] y old). Group-based trajectory analysis was applied to identify trajectories of total volume of PA and of moderate to vigorous PA and to estimate group differences in physical literacy. Results: Three trajectories of total volume of PA and of moderate to vigorous PA were identified. Groups 1 (lowest PA) included 40% to 53% of the sample, groups 2 included 39% to 44% of the sample, and groups 3 (highest PA) included 8% to 16% of the sample. All trajectories declined from timepoint 1 to timepoint 6. School-age physical literacy was lowest in trajectory groups with the lowest total volume of PA or moderate to vigorous PA over time (P < .05). Conclusions: PA should be promoted across early and middle childhood, as it may play a formative role in the development of school-age physical literacy.
Stina Oftedal, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Amy C. Reynolds, Jason A. Bennie, Christopher E. Kline, and Mitch J. Duncan
Background: Physical activity (PA) and sleep duration have established associations with health outcomes individually but tend to co-occur and may be better targeted jointly. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional prevalence, trends, and population characteristic correlates of activity-sleep patterns in a population-representative sample of US adults from the National Health Interview Survey (2004–2018). Methods: Participants (N = 359,019) self-reported aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity and sleep duration. They were categorized as “meeting both”/“meeting PA only”/“meeting sleep only”/“meeting neither” of the 2018 US PA guidelines and age-based sleep duration recommendations. Trends in activity-sleep patterns were analyzed using weighted multinomial logistic regression, and correlates were identified using weighted binary Poisson regressions, with P ≤ .001 considered significant. Results: “Meet sleep only” was most prevalent (46.4%) by 2018, followed by “meet neither” (30.3%), “meet both” (15.6%), and “meet PA only” (7.7%). Many significant sociodemographic, biological, and health-behavior correlates of the activity-sleep groups were identified, and the direction and magnitude of these associations differed between groups. Conclusions: Public health campaigns should emphasize the importance of both sufficient PA and sleep; target women and older adults, current smokers, and those with lower education and poorer physical and mental health; and consider specific barriers experienced by minority ethnic groups.
Dana M. Ghareeb, Owen D. Harris, and Jennifer M. Jakobi
Alex V. Rowlands, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, and Philippa M. Dall
Nina Schorno, Vanessa Gut, Achim Conzelmann, and Julia Schmid
This study tested the effectiveness of individual exercise and sport counseling in a nonclinical setting. The COunseling based on Motives and goals in Exercise and sporT (COMET) approach focuses on individual motives and goals and aims to identify suitable activities. Participants experience different exercise and sport activities and reflect on them with a counselor, who applies motivational interviewing. A stratified randomized controlled design with 129 people was used. The intervention group took part in a counseling event, which included feedback on motives and goals, trial exercise and sport sessions, and structured reflection. Four weeks later, members of the group got a telephone booster. The control group received minimal intervention as written information. Results show that the counseling promoted motivational competence (η2 = .16), physical activity–specific self-control (η2 = .08), and the weekly volume of exercise and sport (η2 = .15), whereas it did not influence self-concordance. Further studies can investigate whether the COMET approach is also effective in other settings.