Daniel Bok, Karim Chamari and Carl Foster
Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado-Da-Silva, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergués and Alfonso Blanco
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a high-intensity semisupervised exercise program alongside lifestyle counseling as an intervention for managing cardiometabolic risk in sedentary adults. Methods: A 40-week 3-arm randomized controlled clinical trial (16-wk intervention and 24-wk follow-up) was used. Seventy-five sedentary adults (34–55 y) with at least 1 cardiometabolic risk factor were randomized into one of the following arms: (1) aerobic interval training (AIT) plus lifestyle counseling (n = 25), (2) low- to moderate-intensity continuous training plus lifestyle counseling (traditional continuous training, TCT) (n = 27), or (3) lifestyle counseling alone (COU) (n = 23). Metabolic syndrome severity scores, accelerometer-based physical activity, and self-reported dietary habits were assessed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up. Results: AIT was well accepted with high enjoyment scores. All groups showed similar improvements in metabolic syndrome severity scores (standardized effect size = 0.46) and dietary habits (standardized effect size = 0.30). Moderate to vigorous physical activity increased in all study groups, with the number of responders higher in AIT and TCT groups (50%) than in COU group (21%). Both AIT and TCT had a greater impact on sedentary behavior than COU (63.5% vs 30.4% responders). Conclusions: AIT appears to be a feasible and effective strategy in sedentary individuals with cardiometabolic risk factors. AIT could be included in intervention programs tackling unhealthy lifestyles.
Geoffrey M. Hudson and Kyle Sprow
Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato and Kevin Filo
The performance of sport organizations has been traditionally examined from the perspective of attaining strategic and operational goals (e.g., profitability, sporting performance). However, contemporary examples point to a need to expand sport organizations’ goals through consideration of their contributions to well-being outcomes. The current special issue addresses this need by advancing the theoretical and empirical understanding of transformative sport service research (TSSR), which seeks to understand how personal and collective well-being can be improved through a range of services offered in the sport industry. This introduction article clarifies the scope of TSSR scholarship and then provides a synthesis of findings and implications from the eight articles included in the special issue. The overview concludes with a call for collective efforts to establish a focused body of knowledge that leads sport organizations to integrate the goal of optimizing consumer and employee well-being into the core of their operations.
Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko and Oddrun Samdal
Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together. Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Multinominal analyses were conducted with 0 to 2 days of MVPA and below average PSP as reference categories. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported for pooled data and individual countries after controlling for family affluence scale. Results: Girls had better PSP than boys, yet more boys participated in daily MVPA than girls. The associations between PSP and MVPA were inverted U shaped. The strongest association for very good PSP was among young adolescents who reported 5 to 6 days MVPA (odds ratios = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–2.4) after controlling for family affluence scale. Conclusions: Young adolescents with average or better PSP took part in at least 3 days of MVPA in a week, suggesting that participating in some MVPA was positively associated with PSP. More days of MVPA in a week, especially for young adolescents with below average PSP, would be beneficial for health and school performance.
Bart Roelands and Philip Hurst
Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer
Background: The World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 states that physical activity interventions should strengthen peoples’ competencies for health. Yet, frameworks that bundle pivotal competencies for a healthy and physically active lifestyle have not been extensively discussed in the past. Results: In the present article, the authors therefore present the model of Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO), an integrative structure model including the 3 areas of movement competence, control competence, and self-regulation competence. After providing a rationale for the use of the competence concept, the authors focus on implications from the PAHCO model to guide interventions for the promotion of a healthy and physically active lifestyle. The authors argue that the PAHCO model is located at the interface between health literacy and physical literacy, research areas that have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. In addition, PAHCO appears to be compatible with the concept of health capability because it can represent the important aspect of agency. Conclusions: The article concludes with a scientific positioning of model components and some empirical results that have been accumulated so far.