The contribution that sport coaches make to society has received growing recognition among policy-makers over the last decade. Sport coaching is no longer only associated with professional and Olympic sport, trophies, and medals, and it is regularly proposed as an activity that contributes to the development of individuals, communities, and societies. Unfortunately, sport coaching has also been associated with negative outcomes, such as institutionalized doping, abuse of athletes, and match fixing. The level of scrutiny and expectations on coaches are higher than ever, and, therefore, more and more countries and sport organizations are examining how coaches are currently recruited, educated, developed, supported, employed, represented, and recognized. In the current landscape, the need to review the existing International Council for Coaching Excellence position statement on “Sport Coaching as a Profession,” written in 2011, is paramount. The 2021 position statement takes into account policy, practice, and research developments over the last decade to propose a way forward for sport coaching over the next 10 years.
Sergio Lara-Bercial, John Bales, Julian North, Ladislav Petrovic, and Guillermo Calvo
Jonpaul Nevin, Ingrid Kouwijzer, Ben Stone, Oliver J. Quittmann, Florence Hettinga, Thomas Abel, and Paul M. Smith
The aim of this narrative review is to provide insight as to the history, biomechanics, and physiological characteristics of competitive handcycling. Furthermore, based upon the limited evidence available, this paper aims to provide practical training suggestions by which to develop competitive handcycling performance. Handbike configuration, individual physiological characteristics, and training history all play a significant role in determining competitive handcycling performance. Optimal handcycling technique is highly dependent upon handbike configuration. As such, seat positioning, crank height, crank fore-aft position, crank length, and handgrip position must all be individually configured. In regard to physiological determinants, power output at a fixed blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L−1, relative oxygen consumption, peak aerobic power output, relative upper body strength, and maximal anaerobic power output have all been demonstrated to impact upon handcycling performance capabilities. Therefore, it is suggested that that an emphasis be placed upon the development and frequent monitoring of these parameters. Finally, linked to handcycling training, it is suggested that handcyclists should consider adopting a concurrent strength and endurance training approach, based upon a block periodization model that employs a mixture of endurance, threshold, interval, and strength training sessions. Despite our findings, it is clear that several gaps in our scientific knowledge of handcycling remain and that further research is necessary in order to improve our understanding of factors that determine optimal performance of competitive handcyclists. Finally, further longitudinal research is required across all classifications to study the effects of different training programs upon handcycling performance.
Charli Sargent, Brent Rogalski, Ashley Montero, and Gregory D. Roach
Purpose: Most athletes sleep poorly around competition. The aim of this study was to examine sleep before/after games during an entire season in elite Australian Rules footballers (N = 37) from the same team. Methods: Sleep was monitored using activity monitors for 4 consecutive nights (beginning 2 nights before games) during 19 rounds of a season. Differences in sleep on the nights before/after games, and differences in sleep before/after games as a function of game time (day vs evening), location (local vs interstate), and outcome (win vs loss), were examined using linear mixed effects models. Results: Players fell asleep earlier (+1.9 h; P < .001), and woke up later (+1 h; P < .001) on the night before games compared with the night of games. Players obtained less sleep on the night of games than on the night before games (5.2 h vs 7.7 h; P < .001), and this reduction was exacerbated when games were played in the evening—after evening games, players obtained approximately 40 minutes less sleep than after day games (P < .001). Sleep duration on the nights before and after games was not affected by game location or game outcome, but players had later sleep onset (P < .001) and offset times (P < .001) on most nights when sleeping away from home. Conclusions: Elite footballers obtain good sleep on the night before games but obtain approximately 30% less sleep on the night of games. Given the role of sleep in recovery, it will be important to determine whether a reduction in sleep duration of this magnitude impairs recovery on the days following games.
Emma Brooks, Gilles Lamothe, Taniya S. Nagpal, Pascal Imbeault, Kristi Adamo, Jameel Kara, and Éric Doucet
There has been much consideration over whether exogenous ketone bodies have the capacity to enhance exercise performance through mechanisms such as altered substrate metabolism, accelerated recovery, or neurocognitive improvements. This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of both ketone precursors and monoesters on endurance exercise performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials investigating endurance performance outcomes in response to ingestion of a ketone supplement compared to a nutritive or nonnutritive control in humans. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the standardized mean difference between interventions using a random-effects model. Hedge’s g and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. The search yielded 569 articles, of which eight were included in this review (80 participants; 77 men and three women). When comparing endurance performance among all studies, no significant differences were found between ketone and control trials (Hedges g = 0.136; 95% CI [−0.195, 0.467]; p = .419). Subanalyses based on type of endurance tests showed no significant differences in time to exhaustion (Hedge’s g = −0.002; 95% CI [−0.312, 0.308]; p = .989) or time trial (Hedge’s g = 0.057; 95% CI [−0.282, 0.395]; p = .744) values. Based on these findings, exogenous ketone precursors and monoesters do not exert significant improvements on endurance exercise performance. While all studies reported an increase in blood ketone concentrations after ingestion, ketone monoesters appear to be more effective at raising concentrations than precursors.
Sophie Gibbs-Nicholls, Alister McCormick, and Melissa Coyle
This study identified helpful and unhelpful encouragement at mass participation running events and explored the meaning that runners found in encouragement. First, 10 k and half-marathon postevent surveys differentiated instructional and motivational components of helpful and unhelpful support. Second, an inductive, reflexive thematic analysis of 14 interviews highlighted the reciprocal relationship between the crowd and runners, whereby quality of support was reflected in runners’ emotions and behavior. Participants drew pride in participation and belief from the crowd, and they wanted to “give back” through doing their best. Personal and authentic support was particularly valued. Although support was widely appreciated, at times it created a pressure to “perform.” As a novel intervention based on our combined findings, we recommend that crowds, event organizers, and psyching teams give encouragement “with IMPACT” (Instructional; Motivational; Personalized; Authentic; Confidence-building; Tailored to the distance). Crowds should also demonstrate the “core conditions” of authenticity, empathy, and being nonjudgmental within their encouragement.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Riki Tesler, Avinoam Gilad, Kwok Ng, and Sharon Barak
Children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD) represent 11% of Israeli children and adolescents. The 10 core indicators of the Global Matrix on Para Report Cards of physical activity (PA) of CAWD were used to create the 2022 Israeli Para Report Card. A panel of four experts reviewed resources and synthesized evidence of PA behaviors and policies for CAWD in Israel, converted the data to grades, and charted subcategories of language, sex, and disability across population. Data sources were surveys, reports, and memberships in sport federations and clubs. Among CAWD, levels of participation in daily PA were poor (<20%; Grade F), and participation of CAWD in sports was even lower (<10%; Grade F). A lack of environmental infrastructure may explain the low levels of participation. Females, Arabic speakers, and physiological CAWD need particular attention. Establishing governmental policies and interventions is required to increase overall PA and participation in sports among CAWD.
Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Carolina Fernandes da Silva
Brazil is a country member of the Para Report Card, and Brazilian researchers have frequently published information on physical activity of children and adolescents. The current study aimed to analyze the policies for the promotion of adapted physical activity to Brazilian children and adolescents with disabilities. Official government information on adapted physical activity was analyzed from the official websites. Policies were analyzed based on the Para Report Card benchmarks, and after that we used the principles of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) to analyze the information. Adapted physical activity is not the main focus of any of the many policies to promote physical activity for children and adolescents. Based on the Para Report Card initiative, the score for this indicator in Brazil is D. Brazil needs to develop specific policies to promote physical activity adapted to the pediatric population with disabilities.
Salomé Aubert, Charlotte Verdot, Gilles Thöni, and Jérémy Vanhelst
The objectives of this work were (a) to adopt the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Report Card methodology to evaluate the state of physical activity (PA) for French children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD) and (b) to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) perceived by French PA experts for promoting PA among CAWD. The harmonized Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Report Card development process was used to assign a grade to the 10 common PA indicators. SWOT templates were completed by PA experts and then collapsed in a summary figure. Despite increasing efforts to provide active opportunities to CAWD, concerning low grades were assigned to behavioral indicators. SWOT analysis provided important insights for the promotion of PA in CAWD. This work highlighted the need for the inclusion of CAWD in a comprehensive national PA surveillance system and for more efficient strategies promoting PA specifically targeting CAWD in France.