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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek, and David Smahel

We provide a systematic review of interventions utilizing mobile technology to alter physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep among adults aged 50 years and older. A systematic search identified 52 relevant articles (randomized control trial [RCT], quasi-experimental, pre/post single-group design). Of 50 trials assessing physical activity, 17 out of 29 RCTs and 13 out of 21 trials assessed for pre/post changes only supported the effectiveness of mobile interventions to improve physical activity, and 9 studies (five out of 10 RCTs and all four pre/post studies) out of 14 reduced sedentary behavior. Only two of five interventions improved sleep (one out of two RCTs and one out of three pre/post studies). Text messaging was the most frequently used intervention (60% of all studies) but was usually used in combination with other components (79% of hybrid interventions included SMS, plus either web or app components). Although more high-quality RCTs are needed, there is evidence supporting the effectiveness of mHealth approaches in those aged 50 years and older.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Charles E. Matthews, Katrien Wijndaele, and on behalf of the Sedentary Behaviour Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and Health

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller, and Keith R. Lohse

Considerable research has been devoted to understanding how intrinsic motivation can augment the learning of motor skills. Many manipulations targeting intrinsic motivation have led to improved learning, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. Replicating a previous study, we manipulated intrinsic motivation by giving one group self-control over the difficulty of practice, while a control group was yoked to that schedule. We collected measures of intrinsic motivation, engagement, and physiological measures related to dopamine (spontaneous eye-blink rate; sEBR) and approach motivation (frontal alpha asymmetry; FAS) to understand mechanisms underlying learning effects. Although the effect of self-control was not significant in the current experiment, the overall result was statistically significant when combined with the results of our previous study. Overall, there is evidence for a benefit of self-control during practice, but the true effect-size is smaller than initially estimated. Furthermore, even though self-control led to increased intrinsic motivation in the current experiment, individual differences in motivation were not correlated with learning. Similarly, neither sEBR nor FAS were related to learning. Taking a cumulative view, these data suggest that self-control of practice is beneficial to both learning and motivation, but increased motivation does not appear to directly cause improved learning.

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith, and Patti-Jean Naylor

This study examined the influence of physical health and well-being vulnerability on participation in physical activities, and whether motor skill proficiency mediated this relationship. Kindergarten children (n = 260) completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and the Children’s Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment survey. A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare the motor skills and participation in physical activities of children in schools classified as more or less vulnerable. We also examined whether motor skill proficiency mediated the relationship between vulnerability status and participation. Children in neighborhoods with higher vulnerability demonstrated lower motor skill proficiency and participation. Object control skill proficiency mediated the relationship between vulnerability and participation. Children from more vulnerable schools started their school career with less developed motor skills and a narrower array of recreation participation. Children in vulnerable neighborhoods need more opportunities to master object controls skills and access recreational activities. Fortunately, motor skill proficiency among children considered ‘at risk’ is amenable to improvement and intervention early in the children’s school career may have a beneficial impact on children’s physical activity at school and beyond the school environment.

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

It is estimated that 1.6 million people in the United States are currently diagnosed with an eating disorder. Eating disorders (EDs) have high rates of morbidity and mortality and remain the most severe mental illness. Unfortunately, rates of EDs and disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) among athletes appear to be increasing. In this study, authors summarize ED-related risks that pose compromises in psychological and social functioning, medical health, and overall quality of life. The importance of early detection and formal evaluation in preserving the athlete’s health, well-being and sustaining successful sport participation, and performance are highlighted. Athlete-specific factors, which challenge the ease and accuracy of ED detection and assessment, are noted. The recommended components of effective ED assessment are identified, including use of self-report measures and clinical interviews conducted by ED certified and licensed professionals. The importance of being well informed in tenets of ED awareness, prevention and supporting early detection, and referral for formal ED assessment are noted. Conclusions reflect the vital roles that both the multidisciplinary sport personnel and the sport environment/culture play in reducing the serious health risks of DEBs and EDs. Each is needed to protect an athlete’s well-being while fostering safe and successful sport participation.

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Cheri A. Levinson

The current study tested if athlete patients differed from non-athlete patients in measures of eating disorder (ED) and related pathology. Athlete (n = 91 in Study 1; n = 39 in Study 2) and non-athlete (n = 76 in Study 1; n = 26 in Study 2) patients completed self-report measures, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Athlete patients had significantly lower ED symptomatology and depression than non-athlete patients (ps < .05). ED impairment, worry, psychosocial functioning, BMI, obsessive-compulsiveness, and compulsive exercise did not significantly differ between groups (ps > .08). Greater ED symptomatology was associated with higher psychosocial functioning among athlete patients and higher obsessive-compulsive symptoms and compulsive exercise among non-athlete patients. This is a novel study comparing ED symptomatology and related measures of mental health in athlete and non-athlete patients engaged in residential or partial hospitalization ED treatment. Future research should further investigate how participation in high-level sport impacts the presentation, treatment, and outcome of individuals with EDs.

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

Eating disorders (EDs) and disordered-eating behaviors (DEBs), pose a high risk of morbidity and mortality, threatening physical health, emotional health, and overall quality of life. Unfortunately, among athletes, prevalence rates continue to increase. This document summarizes the challenges of establishing and navigating the multidisciplinary care needed to effectively treat EDs and DEBs among athletes. The benefits of timely and frequent communication within the multidisciplinary treatment team (MDTT) are emphasized and discussed. Authors advise who should be selected as members of the MDTT and suggest that all personnel, including athletic coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and certified fitness professionals be ED-informed and ED-sensitive. Vital components of care are noted including use of a variety of evidence-based psychotherapeutic modalities, interventions which target emotional regulation, and prioritize values based compassionate care. Authors caution that performance decrements and medical/physiological changes are not always easily observable in individuals with EDs and DEBs and therefore, attuned, consistent, and ongoing monitoring is needed. Consensus regarding previously established parameters for return to play and careful titration of physical activity throughout the ED recovery process are suggested as important for preserving health, preventing re-injury, or relapse and facilitating successful return to sport participation.