Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise during pregnancy on early childhood neurodevelopment (cognitive, motor, and language domains). Methods: A randomized controlled trial nested into the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort was conducted. Healthy pregnant women were enrolled between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation; 424 women and their children (intervention [n = 141]; control [n = 283]) were analyzed. An exercise-based intervention 3 times per week was delivered over 16 weeks. Child neurodevelopment and its domains were assessed at 1, 2, and 4 years. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Results: No effects of exercise during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment and its domains at age 1 year were observed. Compared with the control group, children from women in the exercise group had higher language score at age 2 years (standardized mean differences = 0.23; 95% confidence intervals, 0.02 to 0.44) and higher cognitive score (standardized mean differences = 0.22; 95% confidence intervals, 0.03 to 0.41) at age 4 years. No effects of exercise during pregnancy were observed in the motor domain at 1, 2, and 4 years. Conclusions: No detrimental effects of exercise during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment were observed. In addition, these findings suggest that exercise during pregnancy can result in small benefits for language and cognitive development.
Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Werner de Andrade Müller, Luciana Tornquist, Rafaela Costa Martins, Joseph Murray, Mariângela Freitas Silveira, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, and Gregore Iven Mielke
Pedro C. Hallal
Thilagavathi Ramamoorthy, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, and Prashant Mathur
Background: Sufficient physical activity (PA) significantly contributes to the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. This study aims to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors among adults aged 18–69 years in India. Methods: A national population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2017–2018 among 12,000 adults that adapted globally standard data collection tools. The data were weighted and analyzed using complex samples analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with insufficient PA. Results: Age standardized prevalence of insufficient PA among adults in India was 41.4%. A higher proportion of women (52.4%) and urban adults (51.7%) were not doing sufficient PA. Men (118.8 min) spent more time in PA per day than women (55.3 min). Higher odds of insufficient PA were significantly associated with unemployment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.45), highest wealth quintile (aOR = 1.86), presence of central obesity (aOR = 1.24), and raised blood pressure (aOR = 1.22). Conclusion: This study provides the baseline prevalence of insufficient PA to monitor the set PA targets for India by 2025. The identified associated factors can guide policy makers to plan tailored interventions targeting high-risk groups and a multisectoral approach to promote PA.
Zhiguang Zhang, Madison Predy, Kylie D. Hesketh, Lesley Pritchard, and Valerie Carson
Background: Demographic correlates of movement behaviors in infants are unclear. This study examined the longitudinal associations between demographic correlates and movement behaviors in infants. Methods: Participants were 411 parents of infants from the Early Movers project in Edmonton, Canada. Movement behaviors, infant and parental age, and nonparental care time were assessed using a parental questionnaire at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Other infant and parental demographic variables were assessed at 2 months of age. Linear and generalized linear mixed models were conducted. Results: Infant age was associated with all movement behaviors except for restrained time. White infants and those with older parents had less tummy time but increased odds of having reading time. Infants of the most educated parents also had lower tummy time. Higher parental education and more siblings were associated with no screen time and longer infant sleep time. Infants with immigrant parent(s) were less likely to have reading time. No associations were found for infant sex, time spent in nonparental care, and parental marital status. Conclusion: Since no single demographic group demonstrated healthy patterns for all movement behaviors, promotion of a healthy balance of movement behaviors may be needed universally for all infants.
Tessa Strain, Katrien Wijndaele, Matthew Pearce, and Søren Brage
As smartphone and wearable device ownership increase, interest in their utility to monitor physical activity has risen concurrently. Numerous examples of the application of wearables in clinical and epidemiological research settings already exist. However, whether these devices are all suitable for physical activity surveillance is open for debate. In this commentary, we respond to a commentary by Mair et al. () and discuss four key issues specifically relevant to surveillance that we believe need to be tackled before consumer wearables can be considered for this measurement purpose: representative sampling, representative wear time, validity and reliability, and compatibility between devices. A recurring theme is how to deal with systematic biases by demographic groups. We suggest some potential solutions to the issues of concern such as providing individuals with standardized devices, considering summary metrics of physical activity less prone to wear time biases, and the development of a framework to harmonize estimates between device types and their inbuilt algorithms. We encourage collaborative efforts from researchers and consumer wearable manufacturers in this area. In the meantime, we caution against the use of consumer wearable device data for inference of population-level activity without the consideration of these issues.
Nicholas R. Lamoureux, Paul R. Hibbing, Charles Matthews, and Gregory J. Welk
Accelerometry-based monitors are commonly utilized to evaluate physical activity behavior, but the lack of contextual information limits the interpretability and value of the data. Integration of report-based with monitor-based data allows the complementary strengths of the two approaches to be used to triangulate information and to create a more complete picture of free-living physical behavior. This investigation utilizes data collected from the Free-Living Activity Study for Health to test the feasibility of annotating monitor data with contextual information from the Activities Completed Over Time in 24-hr (ACT24) previous-day recall. The evaluation includes data from 134 adults who completed the 24-hr free-living monitoring protocol and retrospective 24-hr recall. Analyses focused on the relative agreement of energy expenditure estimates between ACT24 and two monitor-based methods (ActiGraph and SenseWear Armband). Daily energy expenditure estimates from ACT24 were equivalent to the reference device-based estimate. Minute-level agreement of energy expenditure between ACT24 and device-based methods was moderate and was similar to the agreement between two different monitor-based methods. This minute-level agreement between ACT24 and device-based methods demonstrates the feasibility and utility of integrating self-report with accelerometer data to provide richer context on the monitored behaviors. This type of integration offers promise for advancing the assessment of physical behavior by aiding in data interpretation and providing opportunities to improve physical activity assessment methods under free-living conditions.
Michael J. Duncan, Lawrence Foweather, Farid Bardid, Anna L. Barnett, James Rudd, Wesley O’Brien, Jonathan D. Foulkes, Clare Roscoe, Johann Issartel, Gareth Stratton, and Cain C.T. Clark
The United Kingdom and Ireland have a well-established research base in motor competence (MC) research, ranging from reporting and monitoring levels of MC, developing assessment tools for MC, providing innovative curriculum and intervention design to support learning and development, as well as providing advocacy for particular groups, such as those with motor impairments. This expert statement, on behalf of the International Motor Development Research Consortium, draws together what is currently known about levels of MC in the United Kingdom and Ireland as well as current approaches to intervention in both countries. Subsequently presented are recommendations for researchers and practitioners to advance the field of MC for the benefit of children and youth in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and worldwide.
Arto J. Pesola, Timo Rantalainen, Ying Gao, and Taija Finni
Objective: Habitual walking is important for health and can be measured with accelerometry, but accelerometry does not measure physiological effort relative to capacity. We compared accelerometer-measured absolute intensity and electromyography (EMG)-measured relative muscle activity between people with low versus excellent aerobic fitness levels during their habitual walking. Methods: Forty volunteers (19 women; age 49.3 ± 17.1 years, body mass index 24.0 ± 2.6 kg/m2; peak oxygen uptake 40.3 ± 12.5 ml/kg/min) wore EMG-shorts and a hip-worn accelerometer simultaneously for 11.6 ± 2.2 hr on 1.7 ± 1.1 days. Continuous gait bouts of at least 5-min duration were identified based on acceleration mean amplitude deviation (MAD, in milli gravitational acceleration, mg) and mean EMG amplitude, with EMG normalized to maximal isometric knee extension and flexion (EMG, in percentage of maximal voluntary contraction EMG). Peak oxygen uptake was measured on a treadmill and maximal strength in isometric leg press (leg press max). MAD and EMG were compared between age- and sex-specific fitness groups (low-average, good, and excellent) and in linear models. Results: During habitual walking bouts (4.1 ± 4.1 bouts/day, 0.9 ± 1.0 min/bout), the low-average fit participants had an approximately 28% lower MAD (245 ± 64.3 mg) compared with both good fit and excellent fit participants (313 ± 68.1 mg, p < .05), but EMG was the same (13.1% ± 8.42% maximal voluntary contraction EMG, p = .10). Absolute, relative to body mass, and relative to skeletal muscle mass peak oxygen uptake (but not leg press max) was positively associated with MAD independent of age and sex (p < .01), but there were no associations with EMG. Conclusions: People with low-average aerobic capacity habitually walk with a lower accelerometer-measured absolute intensity, but the physiological stimulus for lower-extremity muscles is similar to those with excellent aerobic capacity. This should be considered when measuring and prescribing walking for health.
Lewis King, SarahJane Cullen, Jean McArdle, Adrian McGoldrick, Jennifer Pugh, Giles Warrington, and Ciara Losty
A large proportion of jockeys report symptoms associated with mental health difficulties (MHDs), yet most do not seek help from professional mental health support services. Due to the paucity of literature in this field, this study sought to explore jockeys’ barriers to, and facilitators of, help-seeking for MHDs. Twelve jockeys participated in semistructured interviews, subsequently analyzed via reflexive thematic analysis. Barriers to help-seeking included the negative perceptions of others (stigma and career implications), cultural norms (masculinity and self-reliance), and low mental health literacy (not knowing where to seek help, minimization of MHDs, negative perceptions of treatment, and recognizing symptoms). Facilitators to help-seeking included education (exposure to psychological support at a younger age), social support (from professionals, jockeys, family, and friends), and media campaigns (high-profile disclosures from jockeys). Findings are consistent with barrier and facilitator studies among general and athletic populations. Applied recommendations and future research considerations are presented throughout the manuscript.
Bradley J. Cardinal
Kinesiology is a field focused on physical activity and its impact on health, society, and quality of life. But do all people have equal opportunities to access and experience physical activity? Do physical activity settings allow people to freely express themselves? Are the benefits of physical activity universally shared by all people? If the answer to any of these questions is “no,” then these questions demand not only our immediate attention, but also our collective action. During the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting, September 22–24, 2021, these questions and others were explored through presentations devoted to the theme “Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative.” This essay overviews the meeting, its purpose, and the organizers and introduces the 11 thematic papers in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 2021 Meeting: Kinesiology’s Social Justice Imperative” issue, plus a 12th essay commemorating the National Academy of Kinesiology’s 90th anniversary meeting.