Background: This study explored the percentage change of walking to/from public transit to work from 2009 to 2017 in general and for specific sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, this study also examined the sociodemographic characteristics of those who walked to/from transit to work and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day to/from transit to work and compared the difference between 2009 and 2017. Methods: 2009 and 2017 National Household Travel Survey were used. This study used weighted logistic regressions to explore the sociodemographic characteristics of those who walked to/from transit to work and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day to/from transit to work in both 2009 and 2017. Results: The percentage of trips achieving the recommended level of physical activity (30 min or more per day) by walking to/from transit work solely has a slightly increase from 9 in 2009 to 9.5 in 2017. However, the weighted percentages of walking to/from transit to work decreased for low-education, low-income, and minority populations. High population density areas were related to more transit-related walking trips to work in both 2009 and 2017. Conclusions: Policymakers in terms of transit location and service should consider low-education, low-income, and minority populations to address potential equity issues.
Chia-Yuan Yu and Biyuan Wang
Bradley D. Hatfield, Calvin M. Lu and Jo B. Zimmerman
Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria I. Maraki, Eleni Karfopoulou, Yannis Koutras, Stavrie Chrysostomou, Costas A. Anastasiou, Stavros A. Kavouras and Mary Yannakoulia
Background: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. Methods: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18–65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. Results: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. Conclusions: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.
Kelsie M. Full, Eileen Johnson, Michelle Takemoto, Sheri J. Hartman, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Ruth E. Patterson and Dorothy D. Sears
Background: For breast cancer survivors, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with improved survival. Less is known about the interrelationships of daytime activities (sedentary behavior [SB], light-intensity physical activity, and MVPA) and associations with survivors’ health outcomes. This study will use isotemporal substitution to explore reallocations of time spent in daytime activities and associations with cancer recurrence biomarkers. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (N = 333; mean age 63 y) wore accelerometers and provided fasting blood samples. Linear regression models estimated the associations between daytime activities and cancer recurrence biomarkers. Isotemporal substitution models estimated cross-sectional associations with biomarkers when time was reallocated from of one activity to another. Models were adjusted for wear time, demographics, lifestyle factors, and medical conditions. Results: MVPA was significantly associated with lower insulin, C-reactive protein, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and glucose, and higher sex hormone-binding globulin (all P < .05). Light-intensity physical activity and SB were associated with insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (both P < .05). Reallocating 18 minutes of SB to MVPA resulted in significant beneficial associations with insulin (−9.3%), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (−10.8%), glucose (−1.7%), and sex hormone-binding globulin (7.7%). There were no significant associations when 79 minutes of SB were shifted to light-intensity physical activity. Conclusions: Results illuminate the possible benefits for breast cancer survivors of replacing time spent in SB with MVPA.
Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling
Despite the growing popularity of mindfulness and acceptance-based performance enhancement methods in applied sport psychology, evidence for their efficacy is scarce. The purpose of the current study is to test the feasibility and effect of a psychological training program based on Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) developed for ice hockey players. A controlled group feasibility designed study was conducted and included 21 elite male ice hockey players. The ACT program consisted of four, once a week, sessions with homework assignments between sessions. The results showed significant increase in psychological flexibility for the players in the training group. The outcome was positive for all feasibility measures. Participants found the psychological training program important to them as ice hockey players and helpful in their ice hockey development. Desirably, future studies should include objective performance data as outcome measure to foster more valid evidence for performance enhancement methods in applied sport psychology.
Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull
Background: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for global mortality and a contributor to the increase in overweight and obesity. The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity identified the need for guidance on physical activity, particularly for early childhood (<5 y), a period of rapid physical and cognitive development. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the first global guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, building upon high-quality systematic reviews. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent method for the development of recommendations, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework. It takes into consideration the strength of the evidence as well as values and preferences, benefits and harms, equity and human rights. Results: The authors summarize the first global guidelines on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior (including screen time and time spent restrained), and sleep patterns in infants (birth to 1 y of age), toddlers (1–2.9 y of age), and preschoolers (3–4.9 y of age). Conclusions: WHO is actively disseminating and supporting implementation of these guidelines by national adoption and adaptation, through links with early childhood development and the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030.
Jennifer E. McGarry
In her 2019 Earle F. Zeigler address, Jennifer McGarry drew on the 2017 Academy of Management Report “Measuring and Achieving Scholarly Impact” to examine how the field of sport management and the North American Society for Sport Management operationalize impact. She pointed to a broader, more inclusive, and critical examination of impact. McGarry highlighted impact on practice and impact through being explicit, particularly about the ways gender and race affect what we deem to have impact. Finally, she spoke to impact through individual and collective action, such as educating students, scholarship, and policy and advocacy. She provided examples of where we could disrupt the structures that work to maintain the status quo in terms of impact—the in-groups and the out-groups, the metrics and evaluations. She also gave examples of impact that have happened, that are happening, and that can happen even more.
Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle
Nick Wadsworth, Ben Paszkowec and Martin Eubank
This article presents a reflective case study of an applied consultancy experience with a 22-year-old professional rugby league player. The primary aim of the intervention was to provide the client a confidential space where he could discuss his experiences in and outside of a sporting context while also exploring and challenging his core values and beliefs. The consultancy process lasted for 12 mo, leading to the development of a strong relationship. During this time, the client experienced multiple critical moments such as deselection from the first-team squad and contract negotiations, which at times led to reductions in his well-being and forced the trainee sport and exercise psychologist to consider his scope of practice in relation to mental health and depression. Reflections are provided that explore the possibility of referral during these moments. The case study also provides insight into the trainee sport and exercise psychologist’s philosophy of practice and how influential this can be when considering referral of a client. The importance of supervisor support during uncertain moments is highlighted, and the case study concludes with reflections from the client, trainee practitioner, and peer supervisor regarding the efficacy of the intervention and the decision not to refer.
Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine trajectories of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and television-viewing (TV) time and their associations in adults over 10 years. Methods: The sample comprised 2934 participants (men, 46.0%) aged 24–39 years in 2001 and they were followed up for 10 years. LTPA and TV time were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 2001, 2007, and 2011. Longitudinal LTPA and TV-time trajectories and their interactions were analyzed with mixture modeling. Results: Three LTPA (persistently highly active, 15.8%; persistently moderately active, 60.8%; and persistently low active, 23.5%) and 4 TV time (consistently low, 38.6%; consistently moderate, 48.2%; consistently high, 11.7%; and consistently very high, 1.5%) trajectory classes were identified. Persistently highly active women had a lower probability of consistently high TV time than persistently low-active women (P = .02), whereas men who were persistently highly active had a higher probability of consistently moderate TV time and a lower probability of consistently low TV time than their persistently low-active counterparts (P = .03 and P = .01, respectively). Conclusions: Maintaining high LTPA levels were accompanied by less TV over time in women, but not in men. The associations were partially explained by education, body mass index, and smoking.