Context: Periodic assessment of knee extensor muscle strength and size is important for all ages to evaluate the functional status of individuals and to identify and treat those at risk for mobility problems and frailty; however, it is not fully understood whether these field-based simplified approaches correspond to evaluation in knee extensor muscle strength or size. Objective: To examine the relationship between field-based simplified evaluation approaches and knee extensor muscle strength or size in young women. Design: Experimental. Setting: University research laboratory. Subjects: A total of 62 university freshmen women volunteered to participate in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Knee extensor muscle thickness was measured at the anterior half of thigh length; muscle strength was measured when subjects performed knee extension. Field-based simplified approaches (sit-to-stand, standing long jump, handgrip, and upper leg 50% [thigh] girth) were also measured. Results: Maximal strength was correlated with thigh girth, handgrip, and standing long jump, but not with the sit-to-stand test. Muscle thickness was correlated with thigh girth and handgrip, but not with standing long jump or the sit-to-stand test. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis was calculated using the predictor thigh girth and standing long jump to predict knee extensor maximal strength (R 2 = .295). To predict knee extensor muscle thickness, the predictor thigh girth was calculated (R 2 = .202). Conclusions: Knee extensor muscle strength and size could be evaluated by the field-based simplified approaches, in particular by the thigh girth measurement, which may be a major determinant to maintain activities of daily living for healthy young women. However, the 4 field-based simplified approaches appear to be still not of high impact.
Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon
John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos and Sara A. Myers
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant leg dysfunction. The effects of PAD on gait include shortened steps, slower walking velocity, and altered gait kinematics and kinetics, which may confound joint torques and power measurements. Spatiotemporal parameters and joint torques and powers were calculated and compared between 20 patients with PAD and 20 healthy controls using independent t tests. Separate analysis of covariance models were used to evaluate group differences after independently adjusting for gait velocity, stride length, and step width. Compared with healthy controls, patients with PAD exhibited reduced peak extensor and flexor torques at the knee and hip. After adjusting for all covariates combined, differences between groups remained for ankle power generation in late stance and knee flexor torque. Reduced walking velocity observed in subjects affected by PAD was closely connected with reductions in joint torques and powers during gait. Gait differences remained at the knee and ankle after adjusting for the combined effect of spatiotemporal parameters. Improving muscle function through exercise or with the use of assistive devices needs to be a key tool in the development of interventions that aim to enhance the ability of PAD patients to restore spatiotemporal gait parameters.
Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech
Context: Although increasingly used for therapeutic treatment, only limited evidence exists regarding the effects of kinesio taping on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the effects of kinesio taping on pain, function, gait, and neuromuscular control concerning patients with knee OA. Design: Randomized sham-controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: A total of 141 patients (65.1 [7.0] y) with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of knee OA. Intervention: Kinesio tape, sham tape, or no tape for 3 consecutive days. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported pain, stiffness, and function were measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Further tests included the Balance Error Scoring System, 10-m walk test, the maximum voluntary isometric contraction force of the quadriceps femoris, and knee active range of motion. Results: At baseline, there were no differences in all outcomes between groups except for knee flexion. Significant effects were found for WOMAC pain (tape vs sham, P = .05; tape vs control, P = .047), stiffness (tape vs sham, P = .01; tape vs control, P ≤ .001), and physical function (tape vs sham, P = .03; tape vs control P = .004). No interactions were found for balance, muscle strength, walking speed, or active range of motion. Conclusion: Wearing kinesio tape for 3 consecutive days had beneficial effects regarding self-reported clinical outcomes of pain, joint stiffness, and function. This emphasizes that kinesio taping might be an adequate conservative treatment for the symptoms of knee OA.
Matthew S. Tenan, Andrew J. Tweedell and Courtney A. Haynes
Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel
This article is focused on how combinations of motivational attributes and motivational climates support social and pedagogical inclusion in physical education among children with disabilities. Theoretically, the authors integrate tenets from achievement-goal theory and self-determination theory. To capture the motivational complexity underlying children’s experiences of inclusion in physical education, they use a 2-step fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis. The analyses of contextual conditions yielded 2 sufficient inclusion-supportive climates, namely a physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate or a physical inclusive, autonomy-supportive, and low performance-oriented climate. The configurations of motivational attributes in the inclusion-supportive climates indicated 4 sufficient pathways to social and pedagogical inclusion. The path with the largest coverage of children was in the physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate and represented children who were task and ego oriented and low on amotivation and experienced satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Kellie C. Huxel Bliven
Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin
Introduction: Considering the reduction of physical activity performed daily in people with spinal cord injury, it is necessary to analyze the interventions based on physical exercises in order to provide recommendations based on evidence. Objectives: To review and evaluate the literature on physical exercise interventions for individuals with SCI, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, as well as physiological parameters for exercise prescription. Method: A systematic review of the literature produced from August 2016 to February 2017 within the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE databases. Results: Two independent examiners conducted a search in which 223 articles were initially found. A third evaluator verified possible divergences and generated a final list of 25 articles that strictly met the inclusion criteria, 5 of which investigated the effects of aerobic exercise, 2 of resistance training, 2 of balance training, 12 of gait training, and 4 evaluating the combined effect of 2 or more forms of training. Conclusion: Considering studies classified as of high and moderate quality of evidence, positive effects were observed in the domains of structures and functions, in aerobic, resistance training and combined exercises, and in some studies with gait training. In the domain of activities and participation, positive effects were observed in the studies with gait training, balance training, and combined interventions.