Despite an increase of advocacy by established nongovernmental sport organizations, little is known about how advocacy is enacted and with what effects. Building conceptually on frame alignment theory and empirically on interview data from 19 Swedish Regional Sport Federations, this article investigates how advocates politicize sport to gain “insider status” and analyses the by-products of such efforts. This research demonstrates that the architecture of advocacy claims perpetuates a separation between organizations that “sell” sport from those that “produce” it. Framing also impels centralized authority because advocates safeguard their credibility as political actors by taking up a “leadership-position” vis-à-vis clubs. Advocacy frame alignment has further by-products insofar as they narrow advocates’ room for maneuver and become institutionalized over time.
Cecilia Stenling and Michael Sam
Jason A. Bennie, Tracy Kolbe-Alexander, Jan Seghers, Stuart J.H. Biddle and Katrien De Cocker
Background: Muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) is a component of the World Health Organization’s “2010 Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health.” However, its participation trends are seldom examined in physical activity surveillance. This study describes the prevalence, trends, and correlates of MSE among a large sample of US adults. Methods: The data were analyzed from the 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Self-reported MSE participation was assessed using the same validated survey item. Population-weighted proportions were calculated for (1) “insufficient” (0–1 time/wk) or (2) “sufficient MSE” (≥2 times/wk). Prevalence ratios of those reporting sufficient MSE across sociodemographic characteristics were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression. Results: The data were available for 1,735,626 participants (≥18 y). Over the 7-year monitoring period, the prevalence of sufficient MSE showed a small (1.2%) but statistically significant increase (2011 = 29.1%; 2013 = 29.4%; 2015 = 30.2%; and 2017 = 30.3%, P < .001 for linear trend). Older adults, women, and those with lower education/income were consistently less likely to report sufficient MSE, compared with their counterparts. Conclusions: From 2011 to 2017, between 69.7% and 70.9% of US adults did not meet the MSE guidelines. Consistently low participation levels highlight the need to provide support for uptake of or adherence to MSE at the population level.
Jemima C. John, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna Hoelscher, Michael D. Swartz and Chuck Huber
Introduction: Associations across self-efficacy, social support, and multiple measures of physical activity (PA) have not been thoroughly explored in hospital employees. Methods: Validated surveys assessed psychosocial factors; the IPAQ-long assessed PA, and mixed-effects analyses examined relations between psychosocial variables and PA in 920 employees from 6 Texas hospitals. Results: At P <.05, self-efficacy was significantly associated with light (β = 1.67), moderate (β = 1.63), and vigorous (β = 2.78) leisure PA; with domestic PA (β = 1.64); and with moderate commute PA (β = 0.03). At P < .05, family social-support was significantly associated with light (β = 0.94), moderate (β = 0.63), and vigorous (β = .74) leisure PA; with moderate (β = 0.46) and vigorous (β = 1.24) occupation PA; with light (β = 0.58) and moderate (β = 0.20) commute PA; and with domestic PA (β = 1.18). At P < .05, social support from friends was significantly associated with light (β = 0.74), moderate (β = 0.58), and vigorous (β = .91) leisure PA; with moderate commute (β = 0.21); and with domestic PA (β = 0.82). Conclusion: Interventions must emphasize self-efficacy–building strategies and the role of family support to meaningfully impact PA behaviors in uniquethis unique population.
Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello
Background: Physical exercise plays an important role in metabolic health, especially in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of a single endurance and resistance exercise session on IGF-1 serum. Methods: The systematic review was performed in SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. All analyses are based on random-effect models. The study identified 249 records of which 21 were included. Results: There was an effect of endurance exercise on total IGF-1 (P = .01), but not for free IGF-1 (P = .36). Resistance exercise similarly only affected total IGF-1 (P = .003) and not free IGF-1 (P = .37). The effect size indicated that total IGF-1 is more affected (ES = 0.81) by endurance than by resistance exercise (ES = 0.46). The present study showed that IGF-1 serum concentrations are altered by exercise type, but in conditions which are not well-defined. Conclusions: The systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that there is no determinant in serum IGF-1 changes for the exercise load characteristic. Therefore, physical exercise may be an alternative treatment to control changes in IGF-1 metabolism and blood concentration.
Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff
Lorenzo Lolli, Alan M. Batterham, Gregory MacMillan, Warren Gregson and Greg Atkinson
Jos J. de Koning
Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie
Sergio Estrada-Tenorio, José A. Julián, Alberto Aibar, José Martín-Albo and Javier Zaragoza
Background: School environment provides several intervention opportunities for physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and academic achievement in adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 301 students aged between 13 and 15 years (46.51% boys), enrolled at 7 secondary schools in the city of Huesca (Spain). Participants wore accelerometers during a 7-day period, and their academic achievement was calculated from the average marks of all subjects. Structural equation modeling and quadratic regression analysis were performed to test both linear and nonlinear explanatory models. One-way analysis of variance was also performed to explore the effect of gender and the percentage of compliance with MVPA recommendations. Results: MVPA on weekdays and higher levels of body mass index were negatively associated with academic achievement. According to the curvilinear relationship, those students whose MVPA levels were closer to the daily recommendation were more likely to obtain higher academic achievement. However, a significant association was only shown in the case of boys. Conclusions: Adolescents who satisfy the international recommendations tend to obtain better academic achievement. Therefore, MVPA for adolescents should be prescribed within some beneficial time margins (50–70 min/d).