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Open access

Effect of Exercise on Carotid Artery Intima–Media Thickness in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Yiyan Wang, Hengjing Wu, Jie Sun, Minqian Wei, Jiaqi Wang, Husheng Li, Xubo Wu, and Jing Wu

Background: Carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) is a validated surrogate marker of atherosclerosis that is independently associated with the risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies on the effect of exercise on cIMT have yielded conflicting results. Methods: Studies that were available up until October 30, 2021 from the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science databases were included in the analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine the effects of the type, intensity, and duration of exercise on cIMT. Results: This review included 26 studies with 1370 participants. Compared with control participants, those who engaged in exercise showed a decline in cIMT (weighted mean difference [WMD] −0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.03 to −0.01; I 2 = 90.1%). Participants who engaged in aerobic (WMD −0.02; 95% CI, −0.04 to −0.01; I 2 = 52.7%) or resistance (WMD −0.01; 95% CI, −0.02 to −0.00; I 2 = 38.5%) exercise showed lower cIMT compared with control participants. An exercise duration of >6 months was associated with a 0.02 mm reduction in cIMT. In participants with low cIMT at baseline (<0.7 mm), exercise alone was not associated with a change in cIMT (WMD −0.01; 95% CI, −0.03 to 0.00; I 2 = 93.9%). Conclusions: Exercise was associated with reduced cIMT in adults. Aerobic exercise is associated with a greater decline in cIMT than other forms of exercise. Large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are required to establish optimal exercise protocols for improving the pathological process of atherosclerosis.

Open access

Physical Activity Research in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Progress Made but Work Still to Do

Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa

Open access

Healthy Active Aging Can Help Urban Populations Be More Resilient to Changing Environments

Ruth F. Hunter and Ione Avila-Palencia

Open access

Systems Approaches to Physical Activity: New Tools and Resources

William Bellew, Tracy Nau, Ben J. Smith, Melody Ding, and Adrian Bauman

Free access

Understanding of the Single-Item Physical Activity Question for Population Surveillance

Adrian E. Bauman and Justin A. Richards

Background: Sport New Zealand conducts continuous representative “Active NZ” surveys. Between 2019 and 2020 (n = 13,887), these surveys asked International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)—long-form questions, the single-item days (SI-days) per week question, and 1 question on hours per week (single-item hours [SI-hours] per week). This study examines relationships between the established SI-days question and meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines (150 min moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week from SI-hours question and IPAQ). Methods: Analyses were descriptive, and the best fit between SI-days and the PA thresholds was estimated using area under the receiver operator characteristic curves and Youden index. Results: Using SI-hours, 60.6% achieved 150+ minutes; 85.2% reported the IPAQ-total minimum threshold, and 40.8% met the IPAQ-leisure time PA-only threshold. Receiver operator characteristic analyses showed area under the curve values with IPAQ between 0.63 and 0.76, but the SI-days showed a very good area under the curve of 0.82 (0.81–0.83) with the SI-hours 150-minute threshold. Youden index suggested the best fit was at 3+ days per week for maximizing Sensitivity and Specificity to meet IPAQ or SI-hours-defined PA guidelines. Discussion: The SI-days per week question reflects achieving PA guidelines, and the best fit was with the SI-hours per week question. This provides surveillance-relevant concurrent validity for the SI-days measure, but the cut point for broadly meeting guidelines appears to be at least 3 days per week, not 5 days per week as previously thought.

Open access

Socioeconomic Differences in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior During the Retirement Transition: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

Nina Vansweevelt, Filip Boen, Jannique van Uffelen, and Jan Seghers

Background: The retirement transition constitutes both a risk and an opportunity for changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). The present systematic review aims to summarize the current evidence regarding the differences between socioeconomic status (SES) groups in changes in PA and SB across the retirement transition. Methods: The authors searched 5 databases. Inclusion criteria were: investigating statutory retirement, measuring PA and/or SB at least once before and once after retirement, and reporting information on SES differences. Results are reported by means of a narrative synthesis, combined with harvest plots based on direction of effect. Results: We included 24 papers from 19 studies. Sixteen papers focused on PA, 3 on SB, and 5 investigated both. For total PA, occupational PA, and total sedentary time, nearly all publications reported more favorable changes for high SES groups. For recreational PA, active transport, and screen time, there seemed to be a tendency toward more favorable changes for high SES groups. Changes in household/caregiving PA did not appear to differ between SES groups. Conclusions: Changes in movement behavior during the retirement transition are potentially more favorable for high SES adults. Nonetheless, the differences between SES groups seem to depend on the domain of movement behavior.

Open access

Moving Together to Advance Physical Activity Research in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of Latin America

Deborah Salvo, Andrea Ramírez Varela, and Alejandra Jáuregui

Open access

Erratum. Activity Behaviors in British 6-Year-Olds: Cross-Sectional Associations and Longitudinal Change During the School Transition

Open access

Erratum. Physical Behaviors and Their Association With Adiposity in Men and Women From a Low-Resourced African Setting

Open access

Time Trends of Step-Determined Physical Activity Among Adolescents With Different Activity Levels in Czech Republic

Karel Frömel, Josef Mitáš, and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background: This study aimed to present step-determined physical activity trends in adolescents with different activity levels over a period of 10 years. Methods: Pedometers were used to monitor weekly physical activity in 1855 boys and 2648 girls aged 15–19 years recruited from 155 schools in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2018. Trends for average steps/day and percent of accumulating various levels of steps/day (<10,000, 10,000–13,000, and >13,000 steps/d) were analyzed by sex. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in average steps/day between 2009–2010 and 2017–2018 in boys from 12,355 (3936) steps/d to 10,054 (3730) steps/d and girls from 11,501 (3278) steps/d to 10,216 (3288) steps/d. The percent accumulating <10,000 steps/d increased by 21% in boys and 12% in girls. The percent achieving >13,000 steps/d decreased by 17% in boys and 10% in girls. Conclusions: Objectively collected evidence indicates an overall decrease in Czech adolescents’ steps/day over a 10-year period concurrent with an increase in the percent of boys and girls accumulating <10,000 steps/d. These trends are concerning as they portend a decline in physical activity as adolescents transition to adulthood and continue to age, which also may have major health implications.