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Open access

Erratum. Energy Costs of Household and Eldercare Activities in Young to Middle-Aged Chinese Adults

Open access

Changes in Canadian Adolescent Time Use and Movement Guidelines During the Early COVID-19 Outbreak: A Longitudinal Prospective Natural Experiment Design

Markus Joseph Duncan, Negin Alivia Riazi, Guy Faulkner, Jenna Diane Gilchrist, Scott Thomas Leatherdale, and Karen Allison Patte

Background: Comprehensive, prospective, longitudinal data are lacking on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on adolescents’ movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], sleep, recreational screen use, and strengthening exercises). The purpose was to compare movement behavior changes among adolescents affected by the pandemic with controls. Methods: Survey data from 10,659 students at 82 Canadian secondary schools (aged 12–19 y) during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years were analyzed. One-year change in time spent in movement behaviors and likelihood of meeting Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was compared between preoutbreak controls (October 2019–March 2020) and early outbreak respondents (May–July 2020) after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Compared with controls, the early outbreak group reported a greater decrease in time spent in MVPA and greater increases in time spent in sleep and recreational screen use. The early outbreak group was less likely to meet MVPA and recreational screen time guidelines but more likely to meet guidelines for strengthening exercises and sleep duration. Conclusions: Findings for MVPA and screen time changes were in the same direction as retrospective reports from children and youth samples. Sleep adherence may have improved due to no longer having to commute to school. Strengthening exercises may represent physical activity that is easier to do in the home with minimal equipment leading to improved adherence during restrictions.

Open access

Calling out for Change Makers to Move Beyond Disciplinary Perspectives

Katja Siefken

Open access

Activity Behaviors in British 6-Year-Olds: Cross-Sectional Associations and Longitudinal Change During the School Transition

Kathryn R. Hesketh, Soren Brage, Hazel M. Inskip, Sarah R. Crozier, Keith M. Godfrey, Nicholas C. Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, and Esther M.F. Van Sluijs

Background: To explore activity behaviors at school entry, we describe temporal/demographic associations with accelerometer-measured physical activity in a population-based sample of British 6-year-olds, and examine change from ages 4 to 6. Methods: A total of 712 six-year-olds (308 at both ages) wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≥3 (mean 6.0) days. We derived minutes per day sedentary (<20 cpm) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥460 cpm), also segmented across mornings (06:00 AM to 09:00 AM), school (09:00 AM to 3:00 PM), and evenings (3:00 PM to 11:00 PM). Using mixed effects linear regression, we analyzed associations between temporal/demographic factors and children’s activity intensities at age 6, and change between ages 4 and 6. Results: Six-year-old children engaged in MVPA (mean [SD]): 64.9 (25.7) minutes per day (53% met UK guidelines). Girls did less MVPA than boys, particularly during school hours. Children were less active on weekends (vs weekdays) and more active on spring/summer evenings (vs winter). Longitudinally, 6-year-old children did less light physical activity (−43.0; 95% confidence interval, −47.5 to −38.4 min/d) but were more sedentary (29.4; 24.6 to 34.2), and engaged in greater MVPA (7.1; 5.2 to 9.1) compared to when they were aged 4. Conclusion: Half of 6-year-old children met current activity guidelines; MVPA levels were lower in girls and at weekends. UK children became more sedentary but did more MVPA as they entered formal schooling. Physical activity promotion efforts should capitalize on these changes in MVPA, to maintain positive habits.

Open access

Chair Use Disorder: We Should Treat Excessive Chair Use as an Addiction

Robert C. van de Graaf, Leonard Hofstra, and Erik J.A. Scherder

Open access

Differences in Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Between Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan: A Compositional Data Analysis

Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Sayaka Kurosawa, Neville Owen, and Koichiro Oka

Background: Differences in accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior and different physical activity (PA) intensities between men and women have been poorly described. The authors examined gender differences in time-use activity composition and total volume of PA. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted from 2013 to 2015 with a randomized sample of 6000 middle-aged (40–64 y) community-dwelling Japanese adults living in urban and regional cities. Participants wore Active style Pro HJA-350IT on their waist for 7 consecutive days. Gender differences in activity time use was examined using compositional data analysis to control for time spent in all activity measures. Results: In total, 757 participants (303 men, 52.3 [7.1] y) with valid data were included in the analysis. Women spent on average 12.6% less time in sedentary behavior and 23.4% more time in light-intensity PA than men, whereas no significant difference was found for moderate to vigorous PA. Women accumulated a significantly greater volume of PA than men (17.8 vs 15.0 metabolic equivalent of task h/d). Conclusions: Japanese middle-aged women showed higher levels of PA than men because they spent more time in light-intensity PA. Given the health benefits of light-intensity PA, evaluating only moderate to vigorous PA may lead to an underestimation of women’s participation in PA.

Open access

Erratum. 24-Hour Movement Behaviors Among US Adults With Functional Disabilities

Open access

Physical Activity Promotion as a Means to Foster Human and Planetary Health: The Need to Avoid Potential Conflicts of Interests With Unhealthy Commodity Industries

Alejandra Jáuregui

Open access

Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population: Development and Methods

Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Daniel Umpierre, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Sofia Wolker Manta, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*

Background: This article describes the process and methods used in the development of the first ever Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: The steering committee established 8 working groups based on other guidelines and the Brazilian agenda for public health and physical activity (PA) promotion: (1) understanding PA; (2) children up to 5 years; (3) children and youth (6–17 y); (4) adults; (5) older adults (60 years and above); (6) physical education at school; (7) pregnant and postpartum women; and (8) people with disabilities. Working groups were formed to (1) synthesize the literature on each topic; (2) conduct workshops with stakeholders, health professionals, researchers, and the public; and (3) prepare a draft chapter for open online consultation. Results: The document provides guidance for the population on the benefits of being active and recommendations regarding the amount (frequency, intensity, and duration) of PA recommended across all chapters. It also includes information on supporting networks for PA. Conclusions: The PA guidelines are widely accessible in Portuguese, including versions in English, Spanish, audiobook, and Braille, and will assist policy makers and professionals from several sectors to promote PA. The ultimate goal is to increase population levels of PA in Brazil.

Open access

Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population: Recommendations Report

Daniel Umpierre, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Maria Cecília Tenório, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Sofia Wolker Manta, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*

Background: This article presents the recommendations from the Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: A steering committee composed of a chair, 6 experts in physical activity, and representatives from the Ministry of Health/Brazil, Pan American Health Organization, Brazilian Society of Physical Activity and Health designed the guidelines, which was implemented by 8 working groups, as follows: (1) understanding physical activity, (2) children up to 5 years old, (3) children and youth from 6 to 17 years old, (4) adults, (5) older adults (60 years and above), (6) physical education at school, (7) pregnant and postpartum women, and (8) people with disabilities. The methodological steps included evidence syntheses, hearings with key stakeholders, and public consultation. Results: Across 8 chapters, the guidelines provide definitions of physical activity and sedentary behavior, informing target groups on types of physical activity, dosage (frequency, intensity, and duration), benefits, and supporting network for physical activity adoption. The guidelines are openly available in Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Braille and in audio versions, with a supplementary guide for health professionals and decision makers, and a report about the preparation and references. Conclusions: The Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population provide evidence-based recommendations, being a public-directed resource to contribute to the physical activity promotion in Brazil.