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Open access

Promoting Physical Activity Policy: The Development of the MOVING Framework

Kate Oldridge-Turner, Margarita Kokkorou, Fiona Sing, Knut-Inge Klepp, Harry Rutter, Arnfinn Helleve, Bryony Sinclair, Louise Meincke, Giota Mitrou, Martin Wiseman, and Kate Allen

Background: Considering the large health burden of physical inactivity, effective physical activity promotion is a “best buy” for noncommunicable disease and obesity prevention. The MOVING policy framework was developed to promote and monitor government policy actions to increase physical activity as part of the EU Horizon 2020 project “Confronting Obesity: Co-creating policy with youth (CO-CREATE).” Method: A scanning exercise, documentary review of key international policy documents, and thematic analysis of main recommendations were conducted. Themes were reviewed as part of a consultation with physical activity experts. Results: There were 6 overarching policy framework areas: M—make opportunities and initiatives that promote physical activity in schools, the community, and sport and recreation; O—offer physical activity opportunities in the workplace and training in physical activity promotion across multiple professions; V—visualize and enact structures and surroundings that promote physical activity; I—implement transport infrastructure and opportunities that support active societies; N—normalize and increase physical activity through public communication that motivates and builds behavior change skills; and G—give physical activity training, assessment, and counseling in health care settings. Conclusions: The MOVING framework can identify policy actions needed, tailor options suitable for populations, and assess whether approaches are sufficiently comprehensive.

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Relevance of Life Course Epidemiology for Research on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

Gregore Iven Mielke

Open access

Citius, Fortius, Altius, Cognitus—Understanding Which Psychological and Cognitive Components Drive Physical Activity and Exercise Benefits in Parkinson Disease

Thibault Deschamps and Cyril Forestier

Open access

Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Factors Associated With a Valid Wear and Lessons Learned

Amanda Gilbert, Alan Beck, Natalicio Serrano, and Ross C. Brownson

Background: Compared with urban/suburban counterparts, rural communities experience lower rates of physical activity (PA) and higher rates of chronic disease. Promoting PA is important for disease prevention but requires reliable and valid measurement of PA. However, little is known about effectively collecting objective PA data in rural communities. Using data from a cluster randomized trial (Heartland Moves), which aims to increase PA in rural Missouri, this study explored factors associated with successful objective PA data collection and presents lessons learned. Methods: Baseline survey and accelerometry data were collected through Heartland Moves (n = 368) from August 2019 to February 2021, in southeast Missouri. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors (demographics, subjective PA, and SMS reminders) associated with valid wear of PA devices. Results: Overall, 77% had valid wears. Participants who were not married (odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.79) and those living alone (OR 0.49, 95% CI, 0.30–0.81) were less likely to have valid wears. Participants who met PA guidelines (OR 1.69, 95% CI, 1.03–2.75) or received SMS reminders (OR 3.25; 95% CI, 1.97–5.38) were more likely to have valid wears. Conclusions: Results are supported by lessons learned, including importance of communication (SMS reminders), accessing hard-to-reach groups (living alone), and need to adapt during data collection.

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Preschool to School-Age Physical Activity Trajectories and School-Age Physical Literacy: A Longitudinal Analysis

Hilary A.T. Caldwell, Nicole A. Proudfoot, Natascja A. DiCristofaro, John Cairney, Steven R. Bray, and Brian W. Timmons

Purpose: The associations between longitudinal physical activity (PA) patterns across childhood and physical literacy have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify PA trajectories from preschool to school-age, and to determine if trajectory group membership was associated with school-age physical literacy. Methods: Participants (n = 279, 4.5 [0.9] y old, 48% girls) enrolled in this study and completed annual assessments of PA with accelerometry over 6 timepoints. Physical literacy was assessed at timepoint 6 (10.8 [1.0] y old). Group-based trajectory analysis was applied to identify trajectories of total volume of PA and of moderate to vigorous PA and to estimate group differences in physical literacy. Results: Three trajectories of total volume of PA and of moderate to vigorous PA were identified. Groups 1 (lowest PA) included 40% to 53% of the sample, groups 2 included 39% to 44% of the sample, and groups 3 (highest PA) included 8% to 16% of the sample. All trajectories declined from timepoint 1 to timepoint 6. School-age physical literacy was lowest in trajectory groups with the lowest total volume of PA or moderate to vigorous PA over time (P < .05). Conclusions: PA should be promoted across early and middle childhood, as it may play a formative role in the development of school-age physical literacy.

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Prevalence, Trends, and Correlates of Joint Patterns of Aerobic and Muscle-Strengthening Activity and Sleep Duration: A Pooled Analysis of 359,019 Adults in the National Health Interview Survey 2004–2018

Stina Oftedal, Elizabeth G. Holliday, Amy C. Reynolds, Jason A. Bennie, Christopher E. Kline, and Mitch J. Duncan

Background: Physical activity (PA) and sleep duration have established associations with health outcomes individually but tend to co-occur and may be better targeted jointly. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional prevalence, trends, and population characteristic correlates of activity-sleep patterns in a population-representative sample of US adults from the National Health Interview Survey (2004–2018). Methods: Participants (N = 359,019) self-reported aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity and sleep duration. They were categorized as “meeting both”/“meeting PA only”/“meeting sleep only”/“meeting neither” of the 2018 US PA guidelines and age-based sleep duration recommendations. Trends in activity-sleep patterns were analyzed using weighted multinomial logistic regression, and correlates were identified using weighted binary Poisson regressions, with P ≤ .001 considered significant. Results: “Meet sleep only” was most prevalent (46.4%) by 2018, followed by “meet neither” (30.3%), “meet both” (15.6%), and “meet PA only” (7.7%). Many significant sociodemographic, biological, and health-behavior correlates of the activity-sleep groups were identified, and the direction and magnitude of these associations differed between groups. Conclusions: Public health campaigns should emphasize the importance of both sufficient PA and sleep; target women and older adults, current smokers, and those with lower education and poorer physical and mental health; and consider specific barriers experienced by minority ethnic groups.

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Effects of Regular Exercise During Pregnancy on Early Childhood Neurodevelopment: The Physical Activity for Mothers Enrolled in Longitudinal Analysis Randomized Controlled Trial

Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Werner de Andrade Müller, Luciana Tornquist, Rafaela Costa Martins, Joseph Murray, Mariângela Freitas Silveira, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, and Gregore Iven Mielke

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise during pregnancy on early childhood neurodevelopment (cognitive, motor, and language domains). Methods: A randomized controlled trial nested into the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort was conducted. Healthy pregnant women were enrolled between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation; 424 women and their children (intervention [n = 141]; control [n = 283]) were analyzed. An exercise-based intervention 3 times per week was delivered over 16 weeks. Child neurodevelopment and its domains were assessed at 1, 2, and 4 years. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Results: No effects of exercise during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment and its domains at age 1 year were observed. Compared with the control group, children from women in the exercise group had higher language score at age 2 years (standardized mean differences = 0.23; 95% confidence intervals, 0.02 to 0.44) and higher cognitive score (standardized mean differences = 0.22; 95% confidence intervals, 0.03 to 0.41) at age 4 years. No effects of exercise during pregnancy were observed in the motor domain at 1, 2, and 4 years. Conclusions: No detrimental effects of exercise during pregnancy on child neurodevelopment were observed. In addition, these findings suggest that exercise during pregnancy can result in small benefits for language and cognitive development.

Open access

Journal of Physical Activity and Health’s 2021 in Review

Pedro C. Hallal

Open access

Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity Among Adults Aged 18–69 Years in India: Findings From the National Noncommunicable Disease Monitoring Survey

Thilagavathi Ramamoorthy, Vaitheeswaran Kulothungan, and Prashant Mathur

Background: Sufficient physical activity (PA) significantly contributes to the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. This study aims to determine the prevalence of insufficient PA and associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors among adults aged 18–69 years in India. Methods: A national population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2017–2018 among 12,000 adults that adapted globally standard data collection tools. The data were weighted and analyzed using complex samples analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with insufficient PA. Results: Age standardized prevalence of insufficient PA among adults in India was 41.4%. A higher proportion of women (52.4%) and urban adults (51.7%) were not doing sufficient PA. Men (118.8 min) spent more time in PA per day than women (55.3 min). Higher odds of insufficient PA were significantly associated with unemployment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.45), highest wealth quintile (aOR = 1.86), presence of central obesity (aOR = 1.24), and raised blood pressure (aOR = 1.22). Conclusion: This study provides the baseline prevalence of insufficient PA to monitor the set PA targets for India by 2025. The identified associated factors can guide policy makers to plan tailored interventions targeting high-risk groups and a multisectoral approach to promote PA.

Open access

Demographic Correlates of Movement Behaviors in Infants: A Longitudinal Study

Zhiguang Zhang, Madison Predy, Kylie D. Hesketh, Lesley Pritchard, and Valerie Carson

Background: Demographic correlates of movement behaviors in infants are unclear. This study examined the longitudinal associations between demographic correlates and movement behaviors in infants. Methods: Participants were 411 parents of infants from the Early Movers project in Edmonton, Canada. Movement behaviors, infant and parental age, and nonparental care time were assessed using a parental questionnaire at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Other infant and parental demographic variables were assessed at 2 months of age. Linear and generalized linear mixed models were conducted. Results: Infant age was associated with all movement behaviors except for restrained time. White infants and those with older parents had less tummy time but increased odds of having reading time. Infants of the most educated parents also had lower tummy time. Higher parental education and more siblings were associated with no screen time and longer infant sleep time. Infants with immigrant parent(s) were less likely to have reading time. No associations were found for infant sex, time spent in nonparental care, and parental marital status. Conclusion: Since no single demographic group demonstrated healthy patterns for all movement behaviors, promotion of a healthy balance of movement behaviors may be needed universally for all infants.