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Relationships Between Throwing Yips in Baseball, Experiential Avoidance, Cognitive Fusion, Values, and Social Factors

Kazuya Inoue, Tatsuto Yamada, and Tomu Ohtsuki

Despite the high prevalence of yips, a psychoneuromuscular impairment affecting fine motor skills in sports performance, the specific aspects of its causality and treatment have not been identified or verified. This cross-sectional study examined psychosocial factors relating to throwing yips in baseball. Amateur baseball players (N = 292) living in Japan completed a self-report questionnaire on their anxiety/fear about throwing the ball, the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, the Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire, the Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, and self-reports evaluating values and social factors relevant to baseball. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that a low values-based throwing score, a high Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire score, and overreprimanding others’ mistakes were positively associated with baseball players’ yips symptoms. These results suggest that changing the context of playing baseball, reducing cognitive fusion, and improving coaching methods could reduce the risk of baseball players’ throwing yips.

Free access

Development and Validation of the Greek Version of Weight Pressures in Sport—Females Questionnaire

Ioanna Kontele, Tonia Vassilakou, Maria Psychountaki, Justine J. Reel, and Olyvia Donti

Weight Pressures in Sport—Females (WPS-F) questionnaire measures sport-related pressures that female athletes experience regarding body weight, shape, size, and appearance. In order to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the inventory, two different studies were conducted. In the first study, using a sample (n = 225) of female Greek athletes aged 12–20 years, exploratory factor analysis produced two factors (Factor 1: Pressures From Coaches and Sports About Weight and Factor 2: Pressures Regarding Appearance and Performance) and supported the original factor structure. In the second study, using a different sample (n = 318) of female Greek athletes aged 11–18 years, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the two-factor structure. Weight Pressures in Sport—Females questionnaire was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable instrument for Greek female athletic populations. Future studies should further test the factorial structure in younger and older athletes and in larger samples.

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Introducing Empowered Consent to Deal With the Current Challenges in Applied Sport Psychology

Niels Boysen Feddersen

There has been a paucity of literature discussing how to address consent procedures as part of ethics, practitioner development, and best practice in applied sport psychology. Several researchers have addressed ethical challenges (e.g., out-of-session contact, overidentification, time, and space). However, none have substantially considered the sport-specific issues related to consent, which sits at the heart of best practice. The scarcity of discussing consent is limiting sport psychology’s potential to establish itself as a more recognized profession. This article highlights some contextual issues that challenge the idea and efficacy of informed consent. It proposes adapting consent procedures in the collaboration between sport psychology practitioners and clients to better address the current contextual challenges in applied sport psychology. In doing so, the current paper introduces Empowered Consent, which is specifically designed to empower athletes and address challenges related to choosing interventions, contractual obligations, visibility in the environment, and staff trying to gain insights into confidential information. The author offers a model to enhance applied practice for those collaborating with athletes and other clients in sport.

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Exploring the Sport–Alcohol Relationship: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study of Student-Athlete Drinking Following the Transition out of University

Mark Jankowski, Sarah Partington, Nick Heather, and Elizabeth Partington

The purpose of this study was to provide new knowledge about the temporal and contextual aspects of the alcohol–sport relationship. Eight U.K. student-athletes completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in their final year at university, 18 months, and 30 months after graduation. They also completed semistructured interviews about their drinking motives, behaviors, and life circumstances. Results showed that participants reduced their alcohol consumption after leaving university, but despite the onset of some adult responsibilities, most were still drinking at hazardous levels. After university, drinking took place with old friends, new colleagues, and new sporting teammates. At all time points, social drinking motives were the most prevalent. Findings demonstrate a relationship between alcohol and sport that is cemented at university but continues beyond it. Targeted interventions to reduce the role of alcohol in the social experience of sport are needed to support long-term athlete health.

Free access

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Urdu Version of Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version in Pakistan

Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

Evaluating athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward sports-related concussions is important. However, there is limited research involving South Asian athletes, partly due to the lack of a valid and reliable tool. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version, an established tool used to measure knowledge and attitude toward concussion, into Urdu. Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version was translated into Urdu using the standard guidelines and then completed by 369 athletes participating in contact sports at different universities in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the Concussion Attitude Index items to examine the underlying factorial structure. Construct validity of Concussion Attitude Index factors was also investigated using convergent and discriminant validity. The results showed that the Urdu version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Urdu-speaking athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward concussions.

Open access

Living and Embracing Intersectionality in Sport: Introduction to the Special Issue Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Hannah Bennett, Robert Owens, and Tanya Prewitt-White

Open access

Self-Compassionate Motivation and Athlete Well-Being: The Critical Role of Distress Tolerance

Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.

Open access

The Operationalizing Intersectionality Framework

Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers

Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.

Free access

“It’s About Going From Good to Great”: Expert Approaches to Conducting a First Sport Psychology Session

Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird

The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.

Free access

Psychological Vulnerability Associated With Stress Coping Strategies in Japanese University Athletes

Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota

This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.