Jos J. de Koning
Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, Jacob Walther, Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen, and Thomas Haugen
Purpose: The concept of training quality reflects that the effect of training is dependent on more than the mere product of training load (eg, duration, intensity, frequency). The aims of this commentary are to (1) propose a practice-oriented framework to describe training quality and its general and context-dependent characteristics and (2) discuss how athletes and coaches can work to improve training quality. Conclusions: Training quality can be viewed from different perspectives. The holistic dimension includes the entire training process (goal setting, gap analysis, application of training principles and methods, etc), while a narrower dimension encompasses the specific training sessions and how they are executed in relation to the intended purpose. To capture the varying contexts, we define training quality as the degree of excellence related to how the training process or training sessions are executed to optimize adaptations and, thereby, improve overall performance. Although training quality is challenging to quantify, we argue that identification and assessment of quality indicators will increase our scientific understanding and consequently help coaches and athletes to improve training quality. We propose that the physical, technical, and psychological factors of training quality can be improved through an individualized learning process of systematic planning, execution, and debriefing. However, assessment tools should be identified and scientifically validated across different training sessions and sports. We encourage further interventions to improve training quality.
Nathalia Saffioti Rezende, Giulia Cazetta Bestetti, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bruna Caruso Mazzolani, Fabiana Infante Smaira, Alina Dumas, Paul Swinton, Bryan Saunders, and Eimear Dolan
β-Alanine (BA) is one of the most widely used sport supplements, due to its capacity to improve high-intensity exercise performance by increasing muscle carnosine (MCarn) content, and consequently, the buffering capacity of the muscle. BA is also available in a variety of animal foods, but little is currently known about the influence of dietary BA intake on MCarn. The aim of the current study was to compile a detailed summary of available data on the BA content of commonly consumed foods, and to explore whether associations could be detected between self-reported dietary BA intake and skeletal MCarn in a group of 60 healthy, active, omnivorous men and women. Dietary BA intake was assessed via 3-day food records, and MCarn content assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A series of univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore associations between estimated dietary BA and MCarn. No evidence of associations between dietary BA intake and MCarn were identified, with effect sizes close to zero calculated from models accounting for key demographic variables (f 2 ≤ 0.02 for all analyses). These findings suggest that capacity to increase MCarn via dietary strategies may be limited, and that supplementation may be required to induce increases of the magnitude required to improve performance.
Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Jennifer Tomasone, Amy Latimer-Cheung, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Katerina Disimino, Victoria Larocca, Lauren Tristani, Kathleen Martin Ginis, Jennifer Leo, Leigh Vanderloo, Dave Sora, and Archie Allison
Parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYD) have expressed unique physical activity (PA) information needs. Community-based organizations (CBOs) require assistance to meet these needs. Guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II, this project established evidence-informed recommendations for developing PA information targeting families of CYD. This process involved a systematic scoping review to inform draft recommendations (k = 23), which were revised via a consensus meeting with researchers, knowledge users from CBOs, and families of CYD. Broader consultation with CBO knowledge users informed the final recommendations (k = 5) that fit within the following categories: (a) language and definitions, (b) program information, (c) benefits of PA, (d) barriers to PA, and (e) PA ideas and self-regulation tools. CBOs are encouraged to consider these recommendations when developing PA information for families of CYD. Future research will focus on the development of knowledge products to disseminate the recommendations to CBOs and support implementation.
Kwok Ng, Cindy Sit, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Salomé Aubert, Heidi Stanish, Yeshayahu Hutzler, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary-Grace Kang, José Francisco López-Gil, Eun-Young Lee, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, Piotr Kazimierz Urbański, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, and John J. Reilly
This is an overview of the results from 14 countries or jurisdictions in a Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents with disabilities. The methodology was based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s Global Matrix 4.0. Data were aligned with 10 indicators (Overall PA, Organized Sport, Active Play, Active Transport, Physical Fitness, Sedentary Behavior, Family & Peers, Schools, Community & Environment, and Government) to produce Para Report Cards. Subsequently, there were 139 grades; 45% were incomplete, particularly for Active Play, Physical Fitness, and Family & Peers. Collectively, Overall PA was graded the lowest (F), with Schools and Government the highest (C). Disability-specific surveillance and research gaps in PA were apparent in 14 countries or jurisdictions around the world. More coverage of PA data in Para Report Cards is needed to serve as an advocacy tool to promote PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.
Ian A.J. Darragh, Lorraine O’Driscoll, and Brendan Egan
This study investigated within-subject variability in the circulating metabolome under controlled conditions, and whether divergent exercise training backgrounds were associated with alterations in the circulating metabolome assessed in resting samples. Thirty-seven men comprising of endurance athletes (END; body mass, 71.0 ± 6.8 kg; fat-free mass index, 16.9 ± 1.1 kg/m2), strength athletes (STR; 94.5 ± 8.8 kg; 23.0 ± 1.8 kg/m2), and recreationally active controls (CON; 77.6 ± 7.7 kg; 18.1 ± 1.0 kg/m2) provided blood samples after an overnight fast on two separate occasions controlled for time of day of sampling, recent dietary intake, time since last meal, and time since last exercise training session. A targeted profile of metabolites, performed using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry on plasma samples, identified 166 individual metabolites and metabolite features, which were analyzed with intraclass correlation coefficients, a multilevel principal component analysis, and univariate t tests adjusted for multiple comparisons. The median intraclass correlation coefficient was .49, with 46 metabolites displaying good reliability and 31 metabolites displaying excellent reliability. No difference in the abundance of any individual metabolite was identified within groups when compared between visits, but a combined total of 44 metabolites were significantly different (false discovery rate <0.05) between groups (END vs. CON, 42 metabolites; STR vs. CON, 10 metabolites; and END vs. STR, five metabolites). Under similar measurement conditions, the reliability of resting plasma metabolite concentrations varies largely at the level of individual metabolites with ∼48% of metabolites displaying good-to-excellent reliability. However, a history of exercise training was associated with alterations in the abundance of ∼28% of metabolites in the targeted profile employed in this study.
Craig A. Staunton and Glenn Björklund
Background: Compared with other major global team sports such as football or basketball, ice hockey has received considerably less attention in sport-science research. However, the research focus on ice hockey performance is growing rapidly. Unfortunately, despite the growing interest in ice hockey, among the little research that has been conducted there are inconsistencies in terminology and methodology in the study of physiology and performance during games. The need for systematic and standardized reporting of study methodology is vital, as a lack of methodological detail or methodological inconsistencies make it impossible to replicate published studies, and alterations in the methodologies used can influence the measured demands imposed on players. Accordingly, this prohibits the ability of coaches to generate game-replicating training programs, decreasing the application of research findings to practice. In addition, a lack of methodological detail or methodological inconsistencies can result in incorrect conclusions being made from research. Purpose: In this invited commentary, we aim to increase awareness regarding the current standard of methodological reporting in ice hockey game-analysis research. In addition, we have developed a framework for the standardization of game analysis in ice hockey in order to allow for greater replication in future research and to increase the application of published findings to practice. Conclusions: We implore researchers in the field to consult the Ice Hockey Game Analysis Research Methodological Reporting Checklist in order to adopt a detailed reporting standard of methodologies in future work to help improve the applicability of research outcomes.