Accelerometer data are widely used in research to provide objective measurements of physical activity. Frequently, participants may remove accelerometers during their observation period resulting in missing data referred to as nonwear periods. Common approaches for handling nonwear periods include discarding data (days with insufficient hours or individuals with insufficient valid days) from analyses and single imputation (SI) methods. Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of various discard-, SI-, and multiple imputation (MI)-based approaches on the ability to accurately and precisely characterize the relationship between a summarized measure of accelerometer counts (mean counts per minute) and an outcome (body mass index). Methods: Realistic accelerometer data were simulated under various scenarios that induced nonwear. Data were analyzed using common and MI methods for handling nonwear. Bias, relative standard error, relative mean squared error, and coverage probabilities were compared across methods. Results: MI approaches were superior to commonly applied methods, with bias that ranged from −0.001 to −0.028 that was considerably lower than that of discard-based methods (ranging from −0.050 to −0.057) and SI methods (ranging from −0.061 to −0.081). We also reported substantial variation among MI strategies, with coverage probabilities ranging from .04 to .96. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of applying MI methods over more commonly applied discard- and SI-based approaches. Additionally, we show that how you apply MI matters, where including data from previously observed acceleration measurements in the imputation model when using MI improves model performance.
Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Jorge A. Banda, K. Farish Haydel, Thomas N. Robinson, and Manisha Desai
Tatiana Perrino, Ahnalee M. Brincks, Yannine Estrada, Sarah E. Messiah, and Guillermo Prado
Background: Sedentary behaviors, including screen-based activities, are associated with obesity, cardiovascular, and mental health risks. In the US, minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged youth engage in substantial sedentariness, requiring targeted interventions. Familias Unidas for Health and Wellness (FUHW) is a family intervention to reduce risks among Hispanic youth with overweight and obesity. Analyses examined (1) FUHW’s impact on parent and adolescent screen-based sedentary behavior and (2) differential intervention effects by adolescent gender, internalizing symptoms, and body mass index. Methods: A total of 280 overweight/obese Hispanic middle schoolers and parents were randomized to FUHW or control and assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months between 2015 and 2019. Results: Linear growth models showed that exposure to FUHW was not associated with parent sedentary behavior over time (b = −0.11, P = .32) but was associated with decreases in adolescent sedentary behavior (b = −0.27, P = .03). Neither gender nor internalizing symptoms moderated intervention effects, but there were differential effects by body mass index. Compared to controls, FUHW showed significant decreases in sedentary behavior among overweight (b = −0.85, P < .01) and obese (b = −0.79, P < .01) youth but not severely obese youth. Conclusions: FUHW reduced youth screen-based sedentary behavior. Youth with severe obesity require additional intervention.
Robert C. van de Graaf, Leonard Hofstra, and Erik J.A. Scherder
Wendy E. Ellis, Sarah Talebi, Tara M. Dumas, and Lindsey Forbes
The outbreak of the COVID-19 virus dramatically changed daily life and created many obstacles for adolescents to engage in physical activity (PA). This study tracked rates of self-reported PA and examined its impact on adjustment among adolescents during the first 14 months of the pandemic. Canadian adolescents (N = 1068, 14–18 y, meanage = 16.95 y) reported on their frequency of PA, context of activity, and adjustment across 4 time points (April 2020 to June 2021). In line with our hypothesis, higher average levels of vigorous PA across the pandemic predicted less anxiety and depression and higher self-esteem at our study’s end. Vigorous PA also buffered the relationships COVID-19 stress had with anxiety and self-esteem. The results further support recommendations for PA throughout the pandemic and while dealing with lockdown situations.
Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Sayaka Kurosawa, Neville Owen, and Koichiro Oka
Background: Differences in accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior and different physical activity (PA) intensities between men and women have been poorly described. The authors examined gender differences in time-use activity composition and total volume of PA. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted from 2013 to 2015 with a randomized sample of 6000 middle-aged (40–64 y) community-dwelling Japanese adults living in urban and regional cities. Participants wore Active style Pro HJA-350IT on their waist for 7 consecutive days. Gender differences in activity time use was examined using compositional data analysis to control for time spent in all activity measures. Results: In total, 757 participants (303 men, 52.3 [7.1] y) with valid data were included in the analysis. Women spent on average 12.6% less time in sedentary behavior and 23.4% more time in light-intensity PA than men, whereas no significant difference was found for moderate to vigorous PA. Women accumulated a significantly greater volume of PA than men (17.8 vs 15.0 metabolic equivalent of task h/d). Conclusions: Japanese middle-aged women showed higher levels of PA than men because they spent more time in light-intensity PA. Given the health benefits of light-intensity PA, evaluating only moderate to vigorous PA may lead to an underestimation of women’s participation in PA.
Michael J. Duncan, Neil D. Clarke, Lee Bolt, Emma Eyre, and Clare M.P. Roscoe
One hundred and twenty-one children (58 boys and 63 girls) aged 8–14 years (mean ± SD = 12 ± 1 years) who were regularly engaged in grassroots soccer participated in this study. Participants undertook assessments of fundamental movement skill (FMS) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-3, perceived ability using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale for Children, physical fitness via 15-m sprint time, standing long jump distance, and technical skill using the university of Ghent dribbling test. The Procedural Tactical Knowledge Test was employed as a measure of tactical skill from which metrics for positioning and movement and recognizing spaces were derived. Maturation was determined from anthropometric measures. Analysis of covariance examined gender differences in tactical skills accounting for FMS, fitness, perceived ability, technical skill, maturation, and age. Results indicated no significant differences in tactical skills between boys and girls (p > .05). For recognizing spaces, 56% of the variance was explained with FMS (p = .001), physical fitness (p = .02), and technical skill (p = .02) contributing to the model. For positioning and movement, a significant model explained 55% of the variance in this element of tactical behavior with FMS (p = .002) and technical skill (p = .02) significantly contributing to the model.
Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird
The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.