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Rebecca Bassett-Gunter, Jennifer Tomasone, Amy Latimer-Cheung, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Katerina Disimino, Victoria Larocca, Lauren Tristani, Kathleen Martin Ginis, Jennifer Leo, Leigh Vanderloo, Dave Sora, and Archie Allison

Parents of children and youth with disabilities (CYD) have expressed unique physical activity (PA) information needs. Community-based organizations (CBOs) require assistance to meet these needs. Guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation II, this project established evidence-informed recommendations for developing PA information targeting families of CYD. This process involved a systematic scoping review to inform draft recommendations (k = 23), which were revised via a consensus meeting with researchers, knowledge users from CBOs, and families of CYD. Broader consultation with CBO knowledge users informed the final recommendations (k = 5) that fit within the following categories: (a) language and definitions, (b) program information, (c) benefits of PA, (d) barriers to PA, and (e) PA ideas and self-regulation tools. CBOs are encouraged to consider these recommendations when developing PA information for families of CYD. Future research will focus on the development of knowledge products to disseminate the recommendations to CBOs and support implementation.

Free access

Kwok Ng, Cindy Sit, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Salomé Aubert, Heidi Stanish, Yeshayahu Hutzler, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mary-Grace Kang, José Francisco López-Gil, Eun-Young Lee, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, Piotr Kazimierz Urbański, Nicolas Aguilar-Farias, and John J. Reilly

This is an overview of the results from 14 countries or jurisdictions in a Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents with disabilities. The methodology was based on the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance’s Global Matrix 4.0. Data were aligned with 10 indicators (Overall PA, Organized Sport, Active Play, Active Transport, Physical Fitness, Sedentary Behavior, Family & Peers, Schools, Community & Environment, and Government) to produce Para Report Cards. Subsequently, there were 139 grades; 45% were incomplete, particularly for Active Play, Physical Fitness, and Family & Peers. Collectively, Overall PA was graded the lowest (F), with Schools and Government the highest (C). Disability-specific surveillance and research gaps in PA were apparent in 14 countries or jurisdictions around the world. More coverage of PA data in Para Report Cards is needed to serve as an advocacy tool to promote PA among children and adolescents with disabilities.

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Dheyani Malde, Natalie Pizzimenti, John McCamley, and Bonnie Sumner

There is limited research that directly compares the effect of reduced speed with reduced propulsive force production (PFP) on age-related gait changes. We aimed to determine how changes in the gait of older adults correlate with age, speed, or peak PFP over a 6-year span. We collected kinematics and kinetics of 17 older subjects at 2 time points. We determined which biomechanical variables changed significantly between visits and used linear regressions to determine whether combinations of self-selected walking speed, peak PFP, and age correlated to changes in these variables. We found a suite of gait-related changes that occurred in the 6-year period, in line with previous aging studies. Of the 10 significant changes, we found 2 with significant regressions. Self-selected walking speed was a significant indicator of step length, not peak PFP or age. Peak PFP was a significant indicator for knee flexion. None of the biomechanical changes were correlated to the chronological age of the subjects. Few gait parameters had a correlation to the independent variables, suggesting that changes in gait mechanics were not solely correlated to peak PFP, speed, and/or age. This study improves understanding of changes in ambulation that lead to age-related gait modifications.

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Kento Sabashi, Takeshi Chiba, Koji Iwasaki, Tomohiro Onodera, Eiji Kondo, Norimasa Iwasaki, and Harukazu Tohyama

Patients with knee osteoarthritis and varus knee deformity have impaired postural balance, resulting in decreased walking performance and an increased risk of falls. This study aimed to investigate the early changes in the postural balance following inverted V-shaped high tibial osteotomy (HTO). Fifteen patients with medial knee osteoarthritis were recruited. Postural balance was assessed using the center-of-pressure (COP) data during single-leg standing before and 6 weeks after inverted V-shaped HTO. The maximum range, mean velocity, and area of COP movements in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were analyzed. Preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale for knee pain was assessed. The maximum range of COP in the mediolateral direction decreased (P = .017), whereas the mean velocity of COP in the anteroposterior direction increased 6 weeks postoperatively (P = .011). The visual analog scale score for knee pain significantly improved at 6 weeks postoperatively (P = .006). Valgus correction with inverted V-shaped HTO resulted in improved postural balance in the mediolateral direction and good short-term clinical outcomes early following surgery. Early rehabilitation after inverted V-shaped HTO should focus on postural balance in the anteroposterior direction.

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Lawrence P. Behmer Jr., Mathew J.C. Crump, and Kelly J. Jantzen

Several computational models make predictions about the activation states of individual elements of an action sequence during planning and execution; however, the neural mechanisms of action planning are still poorly understood. Simple chaining models predict that only the first response in an action sequence should be active during planning. Conversely, some parallel activation models suggest that during planning, a serial inhibition process places the individual elements of the action into a serial order across a winner-takes-all competitive choice gradient in which earlier responses are more active, and hence likely to be selected for execution compared with later responses. We triggered transcranial magnetic stimulation pulses at 200 or 400 ms after the onset of a five-letter word, in which all but one response was planned and typed with the left hand, except for a single letter which required a right index finger response exclusively at one of five serial positions. We measured the resulting motor-evoked potentials at the right index finger as a marker for the activation state of that planned response. We observed no difference in motor-evoked potential amplitude across any serial position when a right index finger response was planned at 200 ms after the onset of the word; however, we observed a graded pattern of activation at 400 ms, with earlier positions that required a right index finger response showing greater motor-evoked potentials amplitude compared with later positions. These findings provide empirical support for competitive queuing computational models of action planning.

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Shigetada Kudo, Yuji Matsuda, Yoshihisa Sakurai, and Yasushi Ikuta

This study aims to investigate the difference in hand acceleration induced by rapid changes in hand movement directions and propulsion between fast and slow groups of swimmers during front crawl swimming. Twenty-two participants, consisting of 11 fast and 11 slow swimmers, performed front crawl swimming at their maximal effort. Hand acceleration and velocity and the angle of attack were measured using a motion capture system. The dynamic pressure approach was used to estimate hand propulsion. In the insweep phase, the fast group attained significantly higher hand acceleration than the slow group in the lateral and vertical directions (15.31 [3.44] m·s−2 vs 12.23 [2.60] m·s−2 and 14.37 [1.70] m·s−2 vs 12.15 [1.21] m·s−2), and the fast group exerted significantly larger hand propulsion than the slow group (53 [5] N vs 44 [7] N). Although the fast group attained large hand acceleration and propulsion during the insweep phase, the hand velocity and the angle of attack were not significantly different in the 2 groups. The rapid change in hand movement direction could be considered in the technique of underwater arm stroke, particularly in the vertical direction, to increase hand propulsion during front crawl swimming.

Free access

Mark Jankowski, Sarah Partington, Nick Heather, and Elizabeth Partington

The purpose of this study was to provide new knowledge about the temporal and contextual aspects of the alcohol–sport relationship. Eight U.K. student-athletes completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in their final year at university, 18 months, and 30 months after graduation. They also completed semistructured interviews about their drinking motives, behaviors, and life circumstances. Results showed that participants reduced their alcohol consumption after leaving university, but despite the onset of some adult responsibilities, most were still drinking at hazardous levels. After university, drinking took place with old friends, new colleagues, and new sporting teammates. At all time points, social drinking motives were the most prevalent. Findings demonstrate a relationship between alcohol and sport that is cemented at university but continues beyond it. Targeted interventions to reduce the role of alcohol in the social experience of sport are needed to support long-term athlete health.

Free access

Jurate Pozeriene, Arūnas Emeljanovas, Vida Ostaseviciene, Kestutis Skucas, Kristina Bradauskiene, Renatas Mizeras, Ausrine Packeviciute, Kristina Venckuniene, Vaida Pokvytyte, Diana Reklaitiene, and Kwok Ng

Despite the recognized benefits of physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD), collective information on this is lacking in Lithuania. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current “state of the nation” PA levels of CAWD, based on the 10 indicators from the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Global Matrix 4.0 methodology. Scientific articles, practical reports, and published theses related to the 10 indicators from the Global Matrix 4.0 on CAWD age 6–19 years were reviewed, and data were converted to grades from A to F. (A) Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis was carried out to interpret the grades by four experts. Data on organized sport participation (F), school (D), community & environment (D), and government (C) were available. Data on other indicators are largely missing yet are needed for policymakers and researchers to be aware of the current state of PA among CAWD.