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Chelsea L. Kracht, Sai S. Pochana, and Amanda E. Staiano

Background: More moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and less time in sedentary behavior (SB) may protect against poor mental health in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology may also influence adolescents’ own MVPA and SB. The aim of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationship between adolescent MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology using a longitudinal approach. Methods: Adolescents (10–16 y) were recruited for a prospective observational cohort. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Accelerometry was used to measure MVPA and SB. Adolescents were classified by meeting the MVPA guideline (≥60 min/d) and quartiles of SB time, with the lowest amount of time in SB compared to others. Bidirectional associations between MVPA, SB, and depressive symptomatology were assessed using mixed-effects regression models. Results: At baseline, adolescents (n = 205) were 12.5 (2.0) years, 54.6% women, 59.1% White, and 34.6% African American. In unadjusted models, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower follow-up Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire scores, and fewer were classified as depressed at follow-up compared to others. After adjustment, adolescents with less baseline time in SB had lower depressive symptomatology at follow-up. Conclusions: Limiting time spent in SB in adolescence may improve future mental health.

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Sida Chen, Zixue Tai, and Jianping Liu

Background: Tai Ji Quan (TJQ) has broad appeal to people of all ages and backgrounds. This study aimed to examine a variety of individual and environmental factors in the dissemination of TJQ to diverse practicing communities in China. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was utilized in the research design. Quantitative data were collected via an online survey using a national sample (N = 737), whereas qualitative data came from focus groups and in-depth interviews. Analysis was performed along the RE-AIM dimensions of reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results: We divided TJQ experience into 4 distinct categories (nonlearners, current learners, quitters, and retainers) and observed significant patterns of variation along lines of occupation groups and age cohorts. A significant male/female difference was detected in TJQ experience among college students but not the general public, and having practicing family members was an important predictor of personal TJQ history. Varied TJQ experience has a significant impact on perceptions of TJQ’s miscellaneous values as well as level of satisfaction with its health outcomes. Conclusions: Both individual (personal) and environmental (settings) factors are important in shaping personal decisions in TJQ engagement. An ecological approach coordinating individual factors and settings resources is essential in promoting TJQ to the general population.

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Richard P. Troiano

Accelerometer technology and applications have expanded and evolved rapidly over approximately the past two decades. This commentary, which reflects content presented at a keynote presentation at 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM 2022), discusses aspects of this evolution from the author’s perspective. The goal is to provide historical context for newer investigators working with device-based measures of physical activity. The presentation includes discussion of the fielding of accelerometer devices in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, selected recommendations from relevant workshops between 2004 and 2010, and the author’s perspective on the current status of accelerometer use in population surveillance and public health. The important role of collaboration is emphasized.

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Chaiane Calonego, Cristine Lima Alberton, Samarita Beraldo Santagnello, Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristiane Rios Petrarca, Daniel Umpierre, Elisa Gouvêa Portella, Luana Siqueira Andrade, Rochele Barboza Pinheiro, Maria Laura Brizio Gomes, Mariana Silva Häfele, Gabriela Barreto David, Ronei Silveira Pinto, João Saldanha Henkin, and Stephanie Santana Pinto

Background: To determine the effect of resistance training volume on physical and perceptual outcomes of breast cancer survivors submitted to a combined training program. Design: Randomized single-blinded study. Methods: Nineteen breast cancer survivor women were randomized to a single-set (SS) or a multiple-set (MS) group. Both groups completed an 8-week combined training intervention in which the SS and MS groups performed 1 and 3 sets per resistance exercise, respectively. The following outcomes were assessed preintervention and postintervention: maximal knee extension dynamic strength (1-repetition maximum), quadriceps muscle thickness, peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life. Results: Both interventions increased knee extension 1-repetition maximum (SS: 29.8% [37.5%]; MS: 19.3% [11.8%]), quadriceps muscle thickness (9.4% [4.1%]; 8.9% [5.9%]), and quality of life (4.3% [6.3%]; 7.9% [9.0%]), with no difference between the groups. However, only MS improved cancer-related fatigue (−2.1% [1.7%]) and time to exhaustion (21.3% [14.9%]), whereas peak oxygen uptake remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusions: Cancer-related fatigue and time to exhaustion, improved only in the MS group after the intervention. On the other hand, similar knee extension 1-repetition maximum, quadriceps muscle thickness, and quality of life improvements were observed in breast cancer survivors irrespective of the resistance training volume performed.

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Mai ChinAPaw and Manou Anselma

We strongly believe that diversity, equity, and inclusion in research lead to better science, more innovations and more relevant outcomes that better serve society at large. Historically, scientific research is quite WEIRD, meaning that it is dominated by researchers and study samples from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic countries. Such WEIRD research leads to results that better serve a small, privileged group of WEIRD people, widening health inequalities. Research among a selective group with similar backgrounds and perspectives results in bias and hinders innovation. As a result, we end up missing out on the valuable holistic viewpoint that more inclusive research would gain. In this invited commentary based on the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement (ICAMPAM) 2022 keynote presentation by Prof. ChinAPaw, we discuss the importance of diversity, equity, and inclusion in research and introduce our vision for AWESOME science—All-inclusive, Worldwide ranging, Equitable, Sincere, Open-minded, Mindful of our own implicit bias, and Essential—that is more inclusive and relevant for everyone regardless of who they are and where they live. More diversity, equity, and inclusion make our collective dance toward healthy societies more beautiful and impactful!

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I-Min Lee, Christopher C. Moore, and Kelly R. Evenson

There is much evidence showing that physical activity is related to optimal health, including physical and mental function, and quality of life. Additionally, data are accumulating with regard to the detrimental health impacts of sedentary behavior. Much of the evidence related to long-term health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer—the two leading causes of death in the United States and worldwide—comes from observational epidemiologic studies and, in particular, prospective cohort studies. Few data on these outcomes are derived from randomized controlled trials, conventionally regarded as the “gold standard” of research designs. Why is there a paucity of data from randomized trials on physical activity or sedentary behavior and long-term health outcomes? A further issue to consider is that prospective cohort studies investigating these outcomes can take a long time to accrue sufficient numbers of endpoints for robust and meaningful findings. This contrasts with the rapid pace at which technology advances. Thus, while the use of devices for measuring physical behaviors has been an important development in large-scale epidemiologic studies over the past decade, cohorts that are now publishing results on health outcomes related to accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior may have been initiated years ago, using “dated” technology. This paper, based on a keynote presentation at 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement 2022, discusses the issues of study design and slow pace of discovery in prospective cohort studies and suggests some possible ways to maximize the utility and comparability of “dated” device data from prospective cohort studies for research investigations using the Women’s Health Study as an example.

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Robert W. Motl

The consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS), particularly gait and walking dysfunction, may obfuscate (i.e., make unclear in meaning) the measurement of physical activity using body-worn motion sensors, notably accelerometers. This paper is based on an invited keynote lecture given at the 8th International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement, June 2022, and provides an overview of studies applying accelerometers for the measurement of physical activity behavior in MS. The overview includes initial research uncovering a conundrum with the interpretation of activity counts from accelerometers as a measure of physical activity. It then reviews research on calibration of accelerometer output based on its association with energy expenditure in yielding a biologically based metric for studying physical activity in MS. The paper concludes with other applications and lessons learned for guiding future research on physical activity measurement using accelerometry in MS and other populations with neurological diseases and conditions.

Open access

Saud Abdulaziz Alomairah, Signe de Place Knudsen, Caroline Borup Roland, Ida-Marie Hergel, Stig Molsted, Tine D. Clausen, Ellen Løkkegaard, Jane M. Bendix, Ralph Maddison, Marie Löf, Jakob Eg Larsen, Gerrit van Hall, and Bente Stallknecht

Background: Activity trackers and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) measures physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED). However, none of these tools have been validated against a criterion method in pregnancy. We aimed to compare a consumer activity tracker and the Danish version of PPAQ (PPAQ-DK) and to validate them using the doubly labeled water technique (DLW) as criterion method. Methods: A total of 220 healthy pregnant women participated. Total energy expenditure (TEE), PA energy expenditure (PAEE), and PA level were determined at gestational Weeks 28–29 using DLW and a Garmin Vivosport (Garmin, Olathe, KS) activity tracker. In addition, PAEE, moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA, and SED were determined using the activity tracker and PPAQ-DK during all three trimesters. Results: TEE from the activity tracker and DLW correlated (r = .63; p < .001), but the activity tracker overestimated TEE (503 kcal/day). Also, the activity tracker overestimated PAEE (303 kcal/day) and PA level compared with DLW. Likewise, PPAQ-DK overestimated PAEE (1,513 kcal/day) compared with DLW. Compared to PPAQ-DK, the activity tracker reported lower values of PAEE and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA and higher values of SED during all three trimesters. Conclusions: When compared to DLW, we found better agreement of PAEE estimates from the activity tracker than from PPAQ-DK. TEE from the tracker and DLW correlated moderately well, but this was not the case for PAEE or PA level. The activity tracker measured lower PA and higher SED than PPAQ-DK throughout pregnancy. The consumer activity tracker performed better than the questionnaire, but both significantly overestimated PA compared to DLW.

Free access

Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, Georgios Gioftsos, Georgios Georgoudis, and Maria Papandreou

Adherence to exercise rehabilitation has been shown to be an important factor that may influence successful treatment. In professional athletes, a significant reduction in exercise adherence delays recovery. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to and facilitators of exercise rehabilitation adherence in injured volleyball athletes. Eight professional volleyball athletes were recruited, and qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews. All athletes had completed their rehabilitation program after they had suffered a musculoskeletal injury. All data were analyzed using thematic analysis after the investigators ensured that saturation had been reached. Pain was identified as a significant barrier to exercise adherence by all athletes. The provision of social support, including mental, practical, and task related, also had a significant positive impact. The athletes’ ability to develop the necessary coping strategies and confidence on performing exercises at home was also mentioned as a factor that affected exercise adherence, although less often.