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Open access

The Impact of Multimorbidity Patterns on Changes in Physical Activity and Physical Capacity Among Older Adults Participating in a Year-Long Exercise Intervention

Tiina Savikangas, Taija Savolainen, Anna Tirkkonen, Markku Alén, Arto J. Hautala, Jari A. Laukkanen, Timo Rantalainen, Timo Törmäkangas, and Sarianna Sipilä

This study investigated the impact of multimorbidity patterns on physical activity and capacity outcomes over the course of a year-long exercise intervention, and on physical activity 1 year later. Participants were 314 physically inactive community-dwelling men and women aged 70–85 years, with no contraindications for exercise at baseline. Physical activity was self-reported. Physical capacity measurements included five-time chair-stand time, 6-minute walking distance, and maximal isometric knee-extension strength. The intervention included supervised and home-based strength, balance, and walking exercises. Multimorbidity patterns comprised physician-diagnosed chronic disease conditions as a predictor cluster and body mass index as a measure of obesity. Multimorbidity patterns explained 0%–12% of baseline variance and 0%–3% of the change in outcomes. The magnitude and direction of the impact of unique conditions varied by outcome, time point, and sex. Multimorbid older adults with no contraindications for exercise may benefit from multimodal physical training.

Open access

Perceived Constraints to Pickleball Participation Among Black Older Adults

Jonathan M. Casper, Amy Chan Hyung Kim, and Jason N. Bocarro

Pickleball offers sociopsychological and physical activity benefits for older adults but lacks racial diversity. The purpose of this study was to identify constraints to pickleball participation with Black older adults (65+ years) as well as examine differences based on physical activity and sex. A Qualtrics panel included Black older adults (N = 292) who have heard of pickleball and are physically able to play but have not played. Results found Knowledge, Accessibility, Interpersonal, and Interest were the most salient constraints overall. Multivariate analysis of variance found that those who report low physical activity had significantly higher Interpersonal, Psychological, Costs, and Perceived Racism constraints. Additionally, females report significantly higher Knowledge, Psychological, and Cost constraints compared to males. The results further the theoretical application of constraints to physical activity research and provide insights into practitioner implications to grow the sport of pickleball for Black older adults.

Open access

Validity of the German Version of Daily Activity Behaviours Questionnaire Among Older Adults

Kaja Kastelic, Stefan Löfler, Špela Matko, and Nejc Šarabon

Time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep collectively impact health of older adults. There is a need for valid self-reported methods for the assessment of movement behaviors across the entire 24-hr day. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of the German version of Daily Activity Behaviours Questionnaire (DABQ), the “Schlaf- und Aktivitätsfragebogen (SAF),” among older adults. Participants were asked to wear activity monitor (activPAL) for a period of 8 days and to complete the German version of DABQ. Seventy-seven participants (45 females; 68 ± 5 years of age) completed the protocol. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between DABQ and activPAL estimates for time spent in sleep, sedentary behavior, light physical activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity were .69, .35, .24, and .52, respectively. The German version of the DABQ showed satisfactory validity to be used in epidemiological research and population surveillance among older adults.

Free access

Erratum. Effects of Dancing Associated With Resistance Training on Functional Parameters and Quality of Life of Aging Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

Free access

Erratum. Interaction Between Sarcopenic Obesity and Nonlocomotive Physical Activity on the Risk of Depressive Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Older Adult Japanese Women

Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

Free access

Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Social Participation, and Loneliness Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China

Aiqin Chu, Ye Lu, Hailing Zhang, and Yan Jiang

This study examined the relationship between loneliness, sedentary behavior, physical exercise, and social participation in Chinese older adults, and provided ideas to formulate preventive strategies that can help reduce loneliness. Data on demographics, health behavior, social participation, and loneliness were collected from a cross-sectional study of 629 older adults in Hefei, Anhui province, from June to August 2020. After adjusting for age, income, religion, marital status, and chronic illness demographic variables, sedentary behavior (β = 0.111, SE = 0.671, p = .001), physical exercise (β = −0.229, SE = 0.358, p < .001), and social participation (β = −0.329, SE = 0.086, p < .001) were found to be significantly correlated with loneliness in older adults. These findings suggest that a higher level of loneliness may be linked to greater sedentary behavior, less social engagement, and decreased physical exercise among older men and women.

Free access

The Effects of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Evidence From Randomized Controlled Trials

Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn

Open access

Dual-Task Interference of Gait Parameters During Different Conditions of the Timed Up-and-Go Test Performed by Community-Dwelling Older Adults

Anna Cristina Åberg, Liss Elin Larsson, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Lars Berglund, and Kjartan Halvorsen

The Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test has been combined with different verbal/cognitive tasks (i.e., TUG dual task [TUGdt]) as a form of motor-cognitive testing. However, it is still unclear how different TUGdt conditions affect gait among older adults. Thirty community-dwelling older adults, with mean age of 73 years, participated in the study. Data were collected using marker-free video recordings. Gait parameters were extracted using a semiautomatic deep learning system. Comparisons of execution time and gait parameter outcomes were made under TUG and three types of TUGdt test conditions: TUGdt-naming animals, TUGdt-months backwards, and TUGdt-serial 7s. Statistical analyses were based on mean values of the gait parameters for each participant and TUG condition, including TUGdt gait cost, that is, the relative difference between TUGdt and TUG. All the investigated TUGdt conditions resulted in varying degrees of gait parameter changes. Under TUGdt conditions, participants took shorter and slower steps, with TUGdt-serial 7s causing the largest interference.

Open access

Dimensions of Physical Activity Are Important in Managing Anxiety in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Esther Frema Ofosu, Len de Nys, Jenni Connelly, Gemma Cathrine Ryde, and Anna C. Whittaker

Physical activity (PA) is a known approach for managing anxiety symptoms in older adults. This systematic review and meta-analysis address the benefits of PA and its dimensions (frequency, session time, type, and intervention period) on anxiety symptoms in older adults aged 65 years and above. Searches covered eight databases reporting eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-RCTs. Meta-analysis of RCTs (standardized mean difference = −0.41; 95% confidence interval [−0.58, −0.24]; p < .00001) and Fisher’s method of combining p values for non-RCTs supported the effectiveness of PA for managing anxiety symptoms in older adults. Subgroup analysis revealed significant effects for all PA types, session times, frequency, and intervention periods compared with control groups, albeit with different magnitudes of effect. In conclusion, although some dimensions of PA contribute to its effectiveness for anxiety, PA intensity and mode required to maximize PA effects remain unclear.

Free access

Introduction From the New Editors

Lindsay S. Nagamatsu and Patricia C. Heyn