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Open access

Predicting Injuries in Elite Female Football Players With Global-Positioning-System and Multiomics Data

Juan R. González, Alejandro Cáceres, Eva Ferrer, Laura Balagué-Dobón, Xavier Escribà-Montagut, David Sarrat-González, Guillermo Quintás, and Gil Rodas

Purpose: Injury prevention is a crucial aspect of sports, particularly in high-performance settings such as elite female football. This study aimed to develop an injury prediction model that incorporates clinical, Global-Positioning-System (GPS), and multiomics (genomics and metabolomics) data to better understand the factors associated with injury in elite female football players. Methods: We designed a prospective cohort study over 2 seasons (2019–20 and 2021–22) of noncontact injuries in 24 elite female players in the Spanish Premiership competition. We used GPS data to determine external workload, genomic data to capture genetic susceptibility, and metabolomic data to measure internal workload. Results: Forty noncontact injuries were recorded, the most frequent of which were muscle (63%) and ligament (20%) injuries. The baseline risk model included fat mass and the random effect of the player. Six genetic polymorphisms located at the DCN, ADAMTS5, ESRRB, VEGFA, and MMP1 genes were associated with injuries after adjusting for player load (P < .05). The genetic score created with these 6 variants determined groups of players with different profile risks (P = 3.1 × 10−4). Three metabolites (alanine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxy-tryptophan) correlated with injuries. The model comprising baseline variables, genetic score, and player load showed the best prediction capacity (C-index: .74). Conclusions: Our model could allow efficient, personalized interventions based on an athlete’s vulnerability. However, we emphasize the necessity for further research in female athletes with an emphasis on validation studies involving other teams and individuals. By expanding the scope of our research and incorporating diverse populations, we can bolster the generalizability and robustness of our proposed model.

Free access

Quantifying Hitting Load in Racket Sports: A Scoping Review of Key Technologies

Quim Brich, Martí Casals, Miguel Crespo, Machar Reid, and Ernest Baiget

Purpose: This scoping review aims to identify the primary racket and arm-mounted technologies based on inertial measurement units that enable the quantification of hitting load in racket sports. Methods: A comprehensive search of several databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and IEEE Xplore) and Google search engines was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) extension for scoping reviews guidelines. Included records primarily focused on monitoring hitting load in racket sports using commercialized racket or arm-mounted inertial sensors through noncompetitive and competitive racket-sports players. Results: A total of 484 records were identified, and 19 finally met the inclusion criteria. The largest number of systems found were compatible with tennis (n = 11), followed by badminton (n = 4), table tennis (n = 2), padel (n = 1), and squash (n = 1). Four sensor locations were identified: grip-attached (n = 8), grip-embedded (n = 6), wrist (n = 3), and dampener sensors (n = 2). Among the tennis sensors, only 4 out of the 11 (36.4%) demonstrated excellent reliability (>.85) in monitoring the number of shots hit either during analytic drills or during simulated matches. None of the other racket-sports sensors have undergone successful, reliable validation for hitting-volume quantification. Conclusions: Despite recent advancements in this field, the quantification of hitting volume in racket sports remains a challenge, with only a limited number of tennis devices demonstrating reliable results. Thus, further progress in technology and research is essential to develop comprehensive solutions that adequately address these specific requirements.

Free access

The Limitations of Systematic Reviews With Meta-Analyses in Sport Science

Daniel Boullosa, David Behm, Sebastián Del Rosso, Moritz Schumann, Kenji Doma, and Carl Foster

Free access

Sport Science, Geopolitics, and How Each of Us Can Make a Difference

Jos J. de Koning, Carl Foster, David B. Pyne, Ralph Beneke, and Øyvind Sandbakk

Free access

Erratum. Absence of Monotony and Strain Effects on Referees’ Physical Performance During International Basketball Federation World Cup Basketball Competition

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Free access

Erratum. Addressing Circadian Disruptions in Visually Impaired Paralympic Athletes

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

Free access

Strategies to Involve End Users in Sport-Science Research

Christopher J. Stevens and Christian Swann

Free access

Academic Life: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Robert P. Lamberts and N. Tim Cable

Free access

Monitoring Readiness to Train and Perform in Female Football: Current Evidence and Recommendations for Practitioners

Marco Beato, Esben Elholm Madsen, Jo Clubb, Stacey Emmonds, and Peter Krustrup

Purpose: Monitoring player readiness to train and perform is an important practical concept in football. Despite an abundance of research in this area in the male game, to date, research is limited in female football. The aims of this study were, first, to summarize the current literature on the monitoring of readiness in female football; second, to summarize the current evidence regarding the monitoring of the menstrual cycle and its potential impact on physical preparation and performance in female footballers; and third, to offer practical recommendations based on the current evidence for practitioners working with female football players. Conclusions: Practitioners should include both objective (eg, heart rate and countermovement jump) and subjective measures (eg, athlete-reported outcome measures) in their monitoring practices. This would allow them to have a better picture of female players’ readiness. Practitioners should assess the reliability of their monitoring (objective and subjective) tools before adopting them with their players. The use of athlete-reported outcome measures could play a key role in contexts where technology is not available (eg, in semiprofessional and amateur clubs); however, practitioners need to be aware that many single-item athlete-reported outcome measures instruments have not been properly validated. Finally, tracking the menstrual cycle can identify menstrual dysfunction (eg, infrequent or irregular menstruation) that can indicate a state of low energy availability or an underlying gynecological issue, both of which warrant further investigation by medical practitioners.

Open access

Validity and Reliability of Finger-Strength Testing in 6 Common Grip Techniques for the Assessment of Bouldering Ability in Men

Karl Söderqvist, Fredrik Identeg, Jonas Zimmerman, Eric Hamrin Senorski, Mikael Sansone, and Henrik Hedelin

Objective: To determine the criterion validity and test–retest reliability of isometric finger-strength testing in 6 differentiated grip techniques for the assessment of bouldering ability among male climbers. Methods: We recruited participants at climbing gyms in Sweden and through online advertisements. We included climbers over 15 years of age with a minimum bouldering performance level of 17 International Rock Climbing and Research Association (IRCRA) for men and 15 IRCRA for women. We tested unilateral, maximal isometric peak finger strength in the front 3 drag, half crimp, closed crimp, 35 sloper, 45 × 90-mm, and 90 × 90-mm pinch through maximal force deloaded of a force plate. We analyzed criterion validity, test–retest reliability, and capacity to determine bouldering performance ability using a stepwise multivariable regression model. Results: Women were excluded from the analysis due to insufficient sample size (n = 16). Thirty-two male participants were included in the primary analysis. The median (interquartile range) age in the advanced and elite group was 27 (25; 35) and 23 (22; 32) years, respectively. The half crimp for the participants’ weak and strong hand displayed the highest ability to determine bouldering grade performance, explaining 48% to 58% of the variance. In the stepwise regression, maximal strength in the half crimp and the front 3 drag collectively explained 66% of the variance for performance. Conclusion: Strength in the half crimp proved the most important performance indicator. The results of this study provide a reliable and valid framework for maximal isometric peak finger-strength testing in advanced and elite male boulderers.