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Bettina Callary, Catalina Belalcazar, Scott Rathwell, and Bradley W. Young

The Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey (AOSCS) assesses psychosocial coaching practices for coaches who work with adult athletes. The AOSCS can be used as a self-assessment tool for coaches’ professional development, but there is a need to better understand its relevance for coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore coaches’ perspectives of the AOSCS as a self-assessment tool for reflecting, intuitively appraising, and provoking elaborations on contextually embedded psychosocial practices when coaching adult athletes. Thirteen Canadian coaches (nine women/four men, aged 59–78 years) completed the AOSCS prior to watching a webinar regarding the research on coaching Masters athletes and the development of the AOSCS. Each was subsequently shared a copy of their AOSCS results and interviewed about their perceptions of the relevance and utility of the AOSCS. Interviews were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis, which resulted in three higher order themes (relevance of the AOSCS, using the AOSCS, and input from others) with six subthemes. The coaches see the AOSCS as provoking meaningful coach reflection, introspection, and learning intrapersonal coaching knowledge that serve ongoing coach development. As such, this paper outlines evidence with respect to the prospective relevance and practical utility of the AOSCS.

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Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Florentina J. Hettinga, Renato Barroso, Daniel Boullosa, Arturo Casado, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Halle Gregorich, Salvador Jaime, Andrew M. Jones, Katherine R. Malterer, Robert Pettitt, John P. Porcari, Cassie Pratt, Patrick Reinschmidt, Phillip Skiba, Annabel Splinter, Alan St Clair Gibson, Jacob St Mary, Christian Thiel, Kate Uithoven, and Joyce van Tunen

Scientific interest in pacing goes back >100 years. Contemporary interest, both as a feature of athletic competition and as a window into understanding fatigue, goes back >30 years. Pacing represents the pattern of energy use designed to produce a competitive result while managing fatigue of different origins. Pacing has been studied both against the clock and during head-to-head competition. Several models have been used to explain pacing, including the teleoanticipation model, the central governor model, the anticipatory-feedback-rating of perceived exertion model, the concept of a learned template, the affordance concept, the integrative governor theory, and as an explanation for “falling behind.” Early studies, mostly using time-trial exercise, focused on the need to manage homeostatic disturbance. More recent studies, based on head-to-head competition, have focused on an improved understanding of how psychophysiology, beyond the gestalt concept of rating of perceived exertion, can be understood as a mediator of pacing and as an explanation for falling behind. More recent approaches to pacing have focused on the elements of decision making during sport and have expanded the role of psychophysiological responses including sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational, and cognitive-evaluative dimensions. These approaches have expanded the understanding of variations in pacing, particularly during head-to-head competition.

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Andrew T. Askow and Nicholas A. Burd