Scientific interest in pacing goes back >100 years. Contemporary interest, both as a feature of athletic competition and as a window into understanding fatigue, goes back >30 years. Pacing represents the pattern of energy use designed to produce a competitive result while managing fatigue of different origins. Pacing has been studied both against the clock and during head-to-head competition. Several models have been used to explain pacing, including the teleoanticipation model, the central governor model, the anticipatory-feedback-rating of perceived exertion model, the concept of a learned template, the affordance concept, the integrative governor theory, and as an explanation for “falling behind.” Early studies, mostly using time-trial exercise, focused on the need to manage homeostatic disturbance. More recent studies, based on head-to-head competition, have focused on an improved understanding of how psychophysiology, beyond the gestalt concept of rating of perceived exertion, can be understood as a mediator of pacing and as an explanation for falling behind. More recent approaches to pacing have focused on the elements of decision making during sport and have expanded the role of psychophysiological responses including sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational, and cognitive-evaluative dimensions. These approaches have expanded the understanding of variations in pacing, particularly during head-to-head competition.
Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Florentina J. Hettinga, Renato Barroso, Daniel Boullosa, Arturo Casado, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Halle Gregorich, Salvador Jaime, Andrew M. Jones, Katherine R. Malterer, Robert Pettitt, John P. Porcari, Cassie Pratt, Patrick Reinschmidt, Phillip Skiba, Annabel Splinter, Alan St Clair Gibson, Jacob St Mary, Christian Thiel, Kate Uithoven, and Joyce van Tunen
Andrew T. Askow and Nicholas A. Burd
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jurate Pozeriene, Arūnas Emeljanovas, Vida Ostaseviciene, Kestutis Skucas, Kristina Bradauskiene, Renatas Mizeras, Ausrine Packeviciute, Kristina Venckuniene, Vaida Pokvytyte, Diana Reklaitiene, and Kwok Ng
Despite the recognized benefits of physical activity (PA) for children and adolescents with disabilities (CAWD), collective information on this is lacking in Lithuania. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current “state of the nation” PA levels of CAWD, based on the 10 indicators from the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance Global Matrix 4.0 methodology. Scientific articles, practical reports, and published theses related to the 10 indicators from the Global Matrix 4.0 on CAWD age 6–19 years were reviewed, and data were converted to grades from A to F. (A) Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats analysis was carried out to interpret the grades by four experts. Data on organized sport participation (F), school (D), community & environment (D), and government (C) were available. Data on other indicators are largely missing yet are needed for policymakers and researchers to be aware of the current state of PA among CAWD.
José Francisco López-Gil, Susana Aznar, Blanca Roman-Viñas, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Rocío Izquierdo-Gómez, Sabina Barrios-Fernández, Olga Rodríguez Ferrán, and Salome Aubert
This report aims to provide a better understanding of physical activity (PA) and related factors among Spanish children and adolescents living with disabilities. The 10 indicators used for the Global Matrix on Para Report Cards of children and adolescents living with disabilities were evaluated based on the best available data in Spain. An analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats based on data provision was drafted by three experts and critically reviewed by the authorship team to provide a national perspective for each evaluated indicator. Government was the indicator with the highest grade (C+), followed by Sedentary Behaviors (C−), School (D), Overall PA (D−), and Community & Environment (F). The remaining indicators received an incomplete grade. There were low levels of PA in Spanish children and adolescents living with disabilities. Yet, opportunities to improve the current surveillance of PA among this population exist.
Yeshayahu Hutzler, Sharon Barak, Salomé Aubert, Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Riki Tesler, Cindy Sit, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Piritta Asunta, Jurate Pozeriene, José Francisco López-Gil, and Kwok Ng
The purpose was to synthesize information gathered from the interpretation and conclusion sections of the Global Matrix of Para Report Cards on the physical activity of children and adolescents with disabilities. The synthesis was based on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats framework. The procedure consisted of three stages: (a) the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as the theoretical framework; (b) identifying and aligning Global Matrix indicators and benchmarks with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health components through a Delphi approach; and (c) using content analysis to identify themes from specific report cards. Outcomes reveal that further attention toward including children and adolescents with disabilities in fitness assessments is needed as well as adapted assessment methods. Program availability, equipment and facilities, and professional training emerged as strengths but need further development to overcome weaknesses. Paralympic inspiration was an opportunity, whereas extreme weather conditions presented potential threats to physical activity participation among children and adolescents with disabilities.
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
Henry J. Hopwood, Phillip M. Bellinger, Heidi R. Compton, Matthew N. Bourne, and Clare Minahan
Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to (1) determine the muscle fiber-type composition (or muscle fiber typology [MFT]) of team-sport athletes and (2) examine associations between MFT and the physical characteristics and performance tasks in team-sport athletes. Methods: Searches were conducted across numerous databases—PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar—using consistent search terms. Studies were included if they examined the MFT of team-sport athletes. Included studies underwent critical appraisal using the McMasters University critical appraisal tool for quantitative research. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in the present review, wherein the MFT of athletes was measured from 5 different team sports (soccer, rugby union, rugby league, handball, and volleyball). There was large variability in the MFT of team-sport athletes both within (up to 27.5%) and between sports (24.0% relative difference). Male football players with a higher proportion of type II fibers had faster 10- and 30-m sprint times, achieved a greater total distance sprinting (distance at >6.67 m·s−1), and a greater peak 1-minute sprint distance. Conclusions: MFT varies considerably between athletes both within and between different team sports. The results from some studies suggest that variation in MFT is associated with high-intensity running performance in a football match, as well as 10- and 30-m sprint times. Further experimental studies should focus on how determination of the MFT of team-sport athletes could be utilized to influence talent identification, team selection, and the individualization of training.