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Karol Dillon, Paul Kinnerk, Ian Sherwin, and Philip E. Kearney

Developing players who are adept at using both sides of the body (i.e., bilateral skill) is a challenge for coaches in many sports. With players being required to execute a range of skills with hand and foot on both sides of the body, Gaelic football provides an ideal natural laboratory for the study of laterality. Previous quantitative research has produced equivocal findings regarding the importance of bilateral skill performance in sport. In light of this equivocality, this paper utilized a qualitative approach to distill the beliefs and experiences of 14 players and five coaches who had performed at the highest level in Gaelic football. Three higher order categories were produced from the transcripts: the importance of being bilaterally skilled, the potential to develop bilateral skill, and methods to develop bilateral skills. Overall, this study highlights lessons for the design of future quantitative studies of bilateral skill in sport and should stimulate reflection on current practice regarding both short- and long-term bilateral skill development on the part of researchers, applied sport scientists, and coaches.

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Rylee A. Dionigi, Maria Horne, Anne-Marie Hill, and Mary Ann Kluge

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Amirhossein Emamian, Alireza Hashemi Oskouei, Rasoul Azreh, and Kevin Carroll

In previous studies, the acute effects of movement constraints on the countermovement jump performance are investigated; however, the longitudinal effects of implementing the constraint in a training regimen are not well studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of motor learning development due to application of task constraint in a training regimen following 6 weeks of training. Forty-five healthy adult males were randomly assigned to a control or one of two experimental constraint training groups (i.e., no arm swing or restricted knee flexion). Pre- and posttraining jump height and kinematic variables of six maximum effort countermovement jumps were compared longitudinally within the groups, and also compared between the groups. The findings of this study indicated that jump height significantly increased in all the groups while in the unrestricted control group it was increased greater than the experimental conditions (21% compared with 12% and 5.5%). However, the applied task constraints significantly improved some of the contributors to jump performance, establishing specific adaptation of kinematic variables to the constraint training. Therefore, constraint training approach could be suggested in case of demanding specific adaptation of kinematic variables of countermovement jump in a training regimen.

Open access

Andrew Powell

Increasing the physical activity (PA) levels of inactive older adults to promote healthy aging and to reduce preventable health conditions is a public health priority. However, there remains uncertainty on what constitutes the most important components and characteristics of effective PA interventions for older adults, and previous research has largely focused on the cognitive and behavioral strategies they adopt to increase uptake and adherence to PA. This narrative review puts forward the novel idea, with supporting evidence, that the strength, quality, and collaborative nature of the professional–client relationship, a concept drawn from the field of psychotherapy and known as therapeutic alliance, may be a vital and foundational element of effective PA interventions. This article will offer a new understanding, and a new direction of research to aid the future conceptualization, design, and development of interventions that aim to increase the PA levels of older adults.

Open access

Ryota Akagi, Yuta Nomura, Chiho Kawashima, Mari Ito, Kosuke Oba, Yuma Tsuchiya, Geoffrey A. Power, and Kosuke Hirata

This study investigated associations of fatigue resistance determined by an exercise-induced decrease in neuromuscular power with prefatigue neuromuscular strength and power of the knee extensors in 31 older men (65–88 years). A fatigue task consisted of 50 consecutive maximal effort isotonic knee extensions (resistance: 20% of prefatigue isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque) over a 70° range of motion. The average of the peak power values calculated from the 46th to 50th contractions during the fatigue task was normalized to the prefatigue peak power value, which was defined as neuromuscular fatigue resistance. Neuromuscular fatigue resistance was negatively associated with prefatigue maximal power output (r = −.530) but not with prefatigue maximal voluntary contraction torque (r = −.252). This result highlights a trade-off between prefatigue maximal power output and neuromuscular fatigue resistance, implying that an improvement in maximal power output might have a negative impact on neuromuscular fatigue resistance.

Open access

Dominika Bhatia, Nancy M. Salbach, Olayinka Akinrolie, Kyla Alsbury-Nealy, Renato Barbosa dos Santos, Parvin Eftekhar, Hal Loewen, Erica Nekolaichuk, Chelsea Scheller, Rebecca Schorr, Stephanie Scodras, and Ruth Barclay

Limited community ambulation, defined as independent mobility outside the home, predicts adverse outcomes in older adults. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine outdoor community ambulation intervention effectiveness in older adults. We searched six databases until October 2021. Studies with an evaluative research objective, older adult population, and outdoor community ambulation interventions were eligible. After reviewing 23,172 records, five studies were included. The meta-analysis found no significant difference in walking endurance and depression outcomes between outdoor community ambulation and comparison interventions. For outcomes not suitable for meta-analysis, studies showed no significant difference in walking activity, anxiety, and general and health-related quality of life, and possible improvements in gait speed and lower extremity function and strength. Most evidence was of low to very low certainty. Considering the limited evidence base, the design, implementation, and evaluation of outdoor community ambulation interventions in older adults should be prioritized in primary research.

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Maria Cecília Marinho Tenório, Christianne Coelho-Ravagnani, Daniel Umpierre, Douglas Roque Andrade, Roseanne Autran, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de Barros, Tânia R. Bertoldo Benedetti, Fabiana Vieira Santos Azevedo Cavalcante, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Alex Antonio Florindo, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Raphael Mendes Ritti-Dias, Lorena Lima Magalhães, Paula Fabricio Sandreschi, Sofia Wolker Manta, Juliana Rezende Melo da Silva, Kelly Samara da Silva, Fernando Carlos Vinholes Siqueira, Pedro Curi Hallal, and on behalf of the Brazilian Physical Activity Guidelines Working Group*

Background: This article describes the process and methods used in the development of the first ever Physical Activity Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. Methods: The steering committee established 8 working groups based on other guidelines and the Brazilian agenda for public health and physical activity (PA) promotion: (1) understanding PA; (2) children up to 5 years; (3) children and youth (6–17 y); (4) adults; (5) older adults (60 years and above); (6) physical education at school; (7) pregnant and postpartum women; and (8) people with disabilities. Working groups were formed to (1) synthesize the literature on each topic; (2) conduct workshops with stakeholders, health professionals, researchers, and the public; and (3) prepare a draft chapter for open online consultation. Results: The document provides guidance for the population on the benefits of being active and recommendations regarding the amount (frequency, intensity, and duration) of PA recommended across all chapters. It also includes information on supporting networks for PA. Conclusions: The PA guidelines are widely accessible in Portuguese, including versions in English, Spanish, audiobook, and Braille, and will assist policy makers and professionals from several sectors to promote PA. The ultimate goal is to increase population levels of PA in Brazil.