You are looking at 21 - 30 of 511 items for :

  • Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Restricted access

Kishor Lakshminarayanan, Rakshit Shah, Yifei Yao, and Deepa Madathil

Previous studies have demonstrated that both visual and proprioceptive feedback play vital roles in mental practice of movements. Tactile sensation has been shown to improve with peripheral sensory stimulation via imperceptible vibratory noise by stimulating the sensorimotor cortex. With both proprioception and tactile sensation sharing the same population of posterior parietal neurons encoding within high-level spatial representations, the effect of imperceptible vibratory noise on motor imagery-based brain–computer interface is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this sensory stimulation via imperceptible vibratory noise applied to the index fingertip in improving motor imagery–based brain–computer interface performance. Fifteen healthy adults (nine males and six females) were studied. Each subject performed three motor imagery tasks, namely drinking, grabbing, and flexion–extension of the wrist, with and without sensory stimulation while being presented a rich immersive visual scenario through a virtual reality headset. Results showed that vibratory noise increased event-related desynchronization during motor imagery compared with no vibration. Furthermore, the task classification percentage was higher with vibration when the tasks were discriminated using a machine learning algorithm. In conclusion, subthreshold random frequency vibration affected motor imagery–related event-related desynchronization and improved task classification performance.

Restricted access

Jozef J.M. Suskens, Gustaaf Reurink, Johannes L. Tol, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Edwin A. Goedhart, Huub Maas, and Jaap H. van Dieën

This study assessed activity distribution among the hamstring muscles during the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE). The objective was to compare muscle activity between and within muscles during the NHE to add insights in its underlying protective mechanism. Through multichannel electromyography, we measured muscle activity in male basketball players during the NHE. Electromyography was assessed at 15 locations: 5 for biceps femoris long head, 4 for semitendinosus, and 6 for semimembranosus. For each percent of the eccentric phase of the NHE, muscle activity was calculated for each electrode location within each hamstring muscle individually. To quantify whole muscle head activity, means and variances across electrodes within each muscle were calculated. Thirty-five noninjured participants were included (mean age, 18 [2] y; mass, 87 [12] kg; height, 192 [9] cm). Heterogeneous muscle activity was found between 38% and 62% and over the whole eccentric contraction phase within the semitendinosus and the semimembranosus, respectively. Muscle activity of the semitendinosus was significantly higher than that of the biceps femoris long head. During the NHE, the relative contribution of the semitendinosus is the highest among hamstring muscles. Its strong contribution may compensate for the biceps femoris long head, the most commonly injured hamstring muscle head.

Free access

Ke’La H. Porter, Nathan Morelli, Nicholas R. Heebner, Jenna Wilson, Allison M. Parks, Dong Y. Han, and Matthew C. Hoch

Context: Cognitive performance has been shown to be associated with musculoskeletal injury risk. Cognitive assessments are often administered in controlled environments despite sport settings challenging cognition in uncontrolled, less predictable environments. Cognitive assessments should be representative of sport demands; thus, integrating motor with cognitive assessments may be more clinically relevant. Accordingly, the purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between tablet-based cognitive tests and choice reaction time during a hopping task. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: A total of 20 healthy participants volunteered to participate. Participants completed 3 tablet-based cognitive assessments. Average raw response time and fully corrected scores were used for analysis. In addition, participants completed a choice reaction hopping task to capture neuromuscular–cognitive reaction time. Participants completed a forward hop over a hurdle, landing on a single limb. Light sensors were utilized for the choice reaction component to capture reaction time in seconds, cue them when to hop, and indicate the landing limb. The relationship between the tablet-based cognitive assessments and reaction time during a hopping task was examined with Pearson correlations (α = .05). Results: The choice reaction time from the hop task had a negligible correlation (r = −.20−.07) to the fully corrected tablet-based cognitive tests. The choice reaction time from the hop task had a negligible correlation (r = .02) to the average response time of the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test and a low correlation (r = .34−.36) to the Dimensional Change Card Sort Test and Flanker Inhibitory Control and Attention Test. Conclusions: This study determined that tablet-based cognitive assessments had trivial relationships to choice reaction time during a hopping task. This research has implications as clinicians aim to evaluate and analyze cognitive performance. Although reaction time was a critical component of all the assessments in this study, an individual’s performance on a tablet-based assessment does not indicate performance during a functional reaction time assessment.

Free access

Masood Mahfooz, Young-Eun Noh, and Eng Wah Teo

Evaluating athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward sports-related concussions is important. However, there is limited research involving South Asian athletes, partly due to the lack of a valid and reliable tool. This study, therefore, aimed to translate and validate the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version, an established tool used to measure knowledge and attitude toward concussion, into Urdu. Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version was translated into Urdu using the standard guidelines and then completed by 369 athletes participating in contact sports at different universities in Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the Concussion Attitude Index items to examine the underlying factorial structure. Construct validity of Concussion Attitude Index factors was also investigated using convergent and discriminant validity. The results showed that the Urdu version of the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitude Survey—Student Version has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating Urdu-speaking athletes’ knowledge of and attitudes toward concussions.

Free access

Xiaohan Li, Junwu Yu, Jianjuan Bai, Huiming Huang, Shanshan Ying, Aiwen Wang, and Ping Wang

Objectives: To explore the immediate and retention effect of real-time tibial acceleration feedback on running biomechanics during gait retraining. Methods: Five electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies published before May 2022. The included studies were evaluated for methodological quality and bias risk, and data were extracted. A meta-analysis was conducted on the primary outcomes, including peak tibial acceleration (PTA) and vertical ground reaction force. Subgroup analysis was performed by gender, feedback criterion, mode, dosage, fading, retention period, and running environment to evaluate the source of heterogeneity. Qualitative analysis was performed to describe other variables. Results: Fourteen studies (174 participants) were eligible. Meta-analysis showed that real-time tibial acceleration feedback reduced PTA (P < .01, P < .01), vertical impact peak (P = .004, P < .01), vertical average loading rate (P < .01, P < .01), and vertical instantaneous loading rate (P < .01, P < .01) after feedback and during retention period (5 min–12 mo). Subgroup analysis showed that the immediate effect of vertical impact peak was more noticeable with mixed gender (P = .005) and fading feedback (P = .005) conditions, and the retention effect of PTA was more noticeable with high feedback dosage (P < .01) and fading feedback (P < .01) conditions. Conclusions: Real-time tibial acceleration feedback can reduce PTA and vertical ground reaction force during gait retraining, and for periods of 5 minutes to 12 months when the feedback is removed.

Free access

Heidi Stanish, Samantha M. Ross, Byron Lai, Justin A. Haegele, Joonkoo Yun, and Sean Healy

The U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth has tracked 10 physical activity (PA) indicators common to the Active Healthy Kids Global Matrix since 2014. This article expands on the U.S. report cards by presenting PA indicator assessments among children and adolescents with disabilities. Grades for indicators were assigned based on a search of peer-reviewed articles presenting nationally representative data. The Global Matrix 3.0 benchmarks and grading framework guided the process. Grades for overall PA, sedentary behaviors, organized sports, and school were F, D+, D+, and D, respectively. Insufficient evidence existed to assign grades to the remaining six indicators. There is a need in the United States for targeted PA promotion strategies that are specific to children and adolescents with disabilities. Without a commitment to this effort across sectors and settings, the low grades identified in this para report card are expected to remain.

Free access

Seungmin Kim, Jhosedyn Carolaym Salazar Fajardo, and BumChul Yoon

Context: Inappropriate activation of the anterolateral abdominal muscles affects the stability of the lumbopelvic zone and increases the appearance of pain and lesion in the area. Therefore, ways to improve its effective contraction are crucial in rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the activation of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles in 3 different pelvic positions (down pelvis [DP], horizontal pelvis [HP], and up pelvis [UP]) during sling bridge exercise (SBE) to determinate which position is more effective to promote a correct contraction of the anterolateral abdominal muscles. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Fifteen participants performed 3 variations (DP, HP, and UP) of a one-legged exercise called “supine pelvic lift” on a sling device. The thicknesses of the TrA, IO, and EO were recorded at rest and at the 3 positions using ultrasound imaging. Thickness, change ratio, lateral slide of TrA, and preferential and contraction activation ratio of TrA, IO, and EO were analyzed. Results: TrA and IO showed greater activation (P = .01) in the UP position than the other pelvic positions. In addition, UP position decreased the activation of the EO (P = .01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, SBE in the UP position has the potential to improve normal contraction patterns of the musculature and can be used in future intervention of the lumbopelvic zone.

Free access

Filiz Başol, İlke Kara, and Tülay Çevik Saldıran

Objectives: The whole-body vibration (WBV) effects on muscle strength show inconsistent results. Moreover, there is no study about the WBV effect on stiffness, elasticity, and muscle strength. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the effect of WBV exposure with static squat posture on the stiffness, elasticity, and strength of the lower-limb extensor muscles. Material and Methods: Forty healthy untrained young adults were divided into WBV and control groups. The experimental group received WBV exposure on 2 nonconsecutive days of the week, for 6 weeks. The MyotonPRO device was used for the assessment of the knee extensor and the ankle dorsiflexors’ stiffness and elasticity. Isometric muscle strength was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer. All measurements were done by the same assessor at baseline, and the following 6 weeks. Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the elasticity scores of the right (d = 0.84, P = .01) and left (d = 0.77, P = .02) ankle dorsiflexors. Similar to the elasticity measurements, significant group-by-time interactions were observed in the muscle strength scores of the right (d = 0.45, P = .046) and left (d = 1.25, P < .001) ankle dorsiflexors. No significant effects were observed in any of the evaluated muscle stiffness measurements (P > .05), and there was no significant group-by-time interaction in knee-extensor muscle strength and elasticity scores (P > .05). Conclusions: The study results indicate that if the ankle dorsiflexor strength and elasticity are desired to be increased, the 6-week WBV exposure in a static squat posture can be used in healthy individuals.

Free access

Nahid Pirayeh, Farshid Razavi, Amin Behdarvandan, and Neda Mostafaee

Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) is used to measure athletes’ psychological readiness in terms of their emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal with respect to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the ACL-RSI to the Persian version and evaluate the reliability and validity of this scale in patients with ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Clinical measurement study (psychometric analysis). Methods: To assess test–retest reliability, 100 participants were asked to complete the Persian version of the ACL-RSI 2 times with a 7- to 10-day interval. In the first assessment, the patients also filled the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport Questionnaire, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, α), test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients), measurement error (standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change), and construct validity (Pearson r) were determined. Results: Our results showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = .94) and excellent test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = .90 (.85−.93)]. Standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change were 4.64 and 12.85, respectively. No significant bias was observed between test and retest. In addition, based on the results of correlation analysis, all hypotheses of this study were confirmed. The Persian version of the ACL-RSI had a strong correlation with Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport (I-PPR) (P < .001, r = .76) and Tampa scale of Kinesiophobia (TKS) (P < .001, r = −.68). Furthermore, a moderate correlation was observed between the Persian version of the ACL-RSI and the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (P < .001, r = .44) and between this version of the ACL-RSI and the subscales of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (P < .001, r = .30–.55). Conclusion: Given its acceptable reliability and validity, the Persian version of the ACL-RSI seems to be a suitable tool for evaluating psychological readiness to return to sport after ACL reconstruction.