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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

Background: Evidence of the positive effects of school physical activity (PA) interventions, including classroom-based PA (CBPA), is rapidly growing. However, few studies examine how variations in scheduled PA opportunities and teacher-implemented CBPA affect students’ PA outcomes. Methods: Teachers at 5 elementary schools attended training on how to implement CBPA. Data on school-day PA opportunities [physical education (PE), recess, and CBPA] were obtained via calendar and teacher-recorded CBPA logs. Daily step counts were measured via accelerometry in 1346 students across 65 classrooms in first through fifth grades. Results: PE, recess, and CBPA contributed significantly to students’ daily steps. Males accrued more steps than females over the school day, during PE, and during recess. No gender disparity was seen in the amount of additional steps accrued during CBPA. Overall step counts were lower among fifth-grade students versus first-grade students, but CBPA attenuated this difference such that grade-level differences were not significant in fifth-grade students who received CBPA. Conclusions: Gender disparities in step totals were present on PE and recess days, but not on CBPA days. CBPA appears to provide equal PA benefits for both genders and to potentially minimize the decline in PA among older students.

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Meghan Edwards and Paul Loprinzi

Objective: Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), calculated as LOG10 (triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), may be utilized to predict risk for cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been shown to have a favorable association with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The dose–response association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and AIP has yet to be determined in a nationally representative sample of US adults, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: Data from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 6694 adults aged 20–85 y). Leisure-time physical activity over the previous 30 days was self-reported, whereas AIP was calculated from a venous blood sample. Multivariable linear and logistic regression tested the independent association between MVPA and AIP. Results: The authors observed a significant inverse, graded association between quantile of MVPA and the AIP (P trend < .001). Conclusion: Engaging in MVPA may attenuate the risk for cardiovascular disease via improvements in AIP. More longitudinal research is necessary to confirm these cross-sectional findings.

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David K. Wiggins

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Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: To describe overall physical activity prevalence measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire as well as inequalities in leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian adults (15 y and older). Methods: Data from the Brazilian Survey on Medicine Access, Utilization, and Rational Use of Medicines were analyzed. The study was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. Physical activity was measured through Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and classified according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Additional analysis determined the contribution of each physical activity domain to the total amount of physical activity. Inequalities in terms of sex, age, and socioeconomic position were explored. Results: About one-third of the participants (37.1%; 95% confidence interval, 35.5–38.8) were physically inactive. Work-based activities were responsible for 75.7% of the overall physical activity. The prevalence of participants achieving physical activity guidelines considering only leisure-time activities was 17.8% (95% confidence interval, 16.7–19.2). Females and older participants were less active than their counterparts for both overall and leisure-time physical activity; socioeconomic status was positively associated to leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: Major overall physical activity is attributed to work-related physical activity. Leisure-time physical activity, a key domain for public health, presents important gender and socioeconomic inequalities.

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Ricky Camplain, Julie A. Baldwin, Meghan Warren, Carolyn Camplain, Monica R. Lininger and Robert T. Trotter

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis

Background: The Physical Activity Research Center developed a research agenda that addresses youth physical activity (PA) and healthy weight, and aligns with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Culture of Health. This paper summarizes prioritized research studies with a focus on youth at higher risk for inactive lifestyles and childhood obesity in urban and rural communities. Methods: Systematic literature reviews, a survey, and discussions with practitioners and researchers provided guidance on research questions to build evidence and inform effective strategies to promote healthy weight and PA in youth across race, cultural, and economic groups. Results: The research team developed a matrix of potential research questions, identified priority questions, and designed targeted studies to address some of the priority questions and inform advocacy efforts. The studies selected examine strategies advocating for activity-friendly communities, Play Streets, park use, and PA of youth in the summer. A broader set of research priorities for youth PA is proposed. Conclusion: Establishing the Physical Activity Research Center research agenda identified important initial and future research studies to promote and ensure healthy weight and healthy levels of PA for at-risk youth. Results will be disseminated with the goal of promoting equitable access to PA for youth.

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Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin

Background: This study investigated the associations of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior with academic achievement. We further examined whether aerobic fitness, obesity, and bedtime mediate these associations. Methods: This study included 970 children aged 9–15 years (52.3% girls) from 9 schools throughout Finland. Register-based academic achievement [grade point average (GPA)] as well as self-reported and accelerometer-measured PA/sedentary behavior were assessed during spring 2013. Aerobic fitness (assessed via a maximal shuttle run test), body composition (assessed via bioimpedance analysis), and self-reported bedtime were collected. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the associations. Standardized regression coefficients are presented. Results: Self-reported PA had a direct positive [β = 0.084; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.023 to 0.145] and an indirect positive association with GPA through higher aerobic fitness (β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.033 to −0.087). Accelerometer-based PA was not associated with GPA. Self-reported screen time had an indirect negative association with GPA through later bedtime (β = −0.071; 95% CI, −0.096 to −0.035) and lower aerobic fitness (β = −0.039; 95% CI, −0.059 to 0.019). Nonscreen sedentary time had a direct positive (β = 0.193; 95% CI, 0.101 to −0.289) and an indirect negative association with GPA through lower aerobic fitness (β = −0.040; 95% CI, −0.063 to −0.016). Conclusions: Participating in PA, avoiding excessive screen time, and going to bed earlier may benefit academic achievement.