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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

Exercise is effective in preventing falls among older adults. However, few studies have included people living with dementia and their carers and explored their experiences. The aim of this study is to explore what affects the acceptability of exercise interventions to better meet the needs of people with dementia and their carers as a dyad. Observations, field notes containing participant’s and instructor’s feedback, and focus groups with 10 dyads involved in Tai Chi classes for 3 or 4 weeks in two sites in the South of England were thematically analyzed to understand their experiences. Findings suggest that dyads’ determination to achieve the benefits of Tai Chi facilitated their adherence, whereas a member of the dyad’s low sense of efficacy performing the movements during classes was a barrier. Simplifying class content and enhancing the clarity of instructions for home-based practice will be key to support the design of future exercise interventions.

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

Five experiments that examined Wegner’s theory of ironic processes of mental control in reactive motor performance under pressure are presented for the first time. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4, the authors conducted specific examinations of the incidence of an ironic error using a reactive motor task. In Experiments 3 and 5, they provided the first tests of whether task instruction moderates the incidence of ironic errors. The task required participants to react to a series of three primary-colored balls as they rolled down a chute under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Measures of anxiety, heart rate, heart-rate variability, and muscle activity confirmed the effectiveness of the anxiety manipulation. Experiments 1, 2, and 4 revealed that anxiety increased the number of ironic errors. In Experiments 3 and 5, the authors provided the first evidence that instructional interventions can reduce the incidence of anxiety-induced ironic performance errors in reactive motor tasks.

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Mette Rørth, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Prue Cormie, John L. Oliffe and Julie Midtgaard

Although football training may be a potent strategy for health promotion in older men, the considerable risk of injuries may constitute a barrier for referral of clinical populations. The current study explored the attitudes of men with prostate cancer on risk in the context of injuries related to participating in a community-based football program. Four videotaped focus group interviews and three individual in-depth telephone interviews were carried out with men with prostate cancer (n = 35; mean age = 68.8). The thematic networks technique was used to derive the global theme Injury-induced reinforced masculinity comprising five subthemes: “part of the game,” “a good story to tell,” “like boys again,” “an old, carefree body,” and “camaraderie.” Collectively, these themes explained how football injuries may reflect masculine ideals in some men with prostate cancer. The study indicates that injuries are largely acceptable to men with prostate cancer, especially those in search of a means for expressing their masculinity.

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Philippa M. Dall, Dawn A. Skelton, Manon L. Dontje, Elaine H. Coulter, Sally Stewart, Simon R. Cox, Richard J. Shaw, Iva Čukić, Claire F. Fitzsimons, Carolyn A. Greig, Malcolm H. Granat, Geoff Der, Ian J. Deary, Sebastien F.M. Chastin and On behalf of the Seniors USP Team

The Seniors USP (Understanding Sedentary Patterns) study measured sedentary behavior (activPAL3, 9-day wear) in older adults. The measurement protocol had three key characteristics: enabling 24-hour wear (monitor location, waterproofing), minimizing data loss (reducing monitor failure, staff training, communication), and quality assurance (removal by researcher, confidence about wear). Two monitors were not returned; 91% (n = 700) of returned monitors had seven valid days of data. Sources of data loss included monitor failure (n = 11), exclusion after quality assurance (n = 5), early removal for skin irritation (n = 8), or procedural errors (n = 10). Objective measurement of physical activity and sedentary behavior in large studies requires decisional trade-offs between data quantity (collecting representative data) and utility (derived outcomes that reflect actual behavior).

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Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner

Background: Evidence of the positive effects of school physical activity (PA) interventions, including classroom-based PA (CBPA), is rapidly growing. However, few studies examine how variations in scheduled PA opportunities and teacher-implemented CBPA affect students’ PA outcomes. Methods: Teachers at 5 elementary schools attended training on how to implement CBPA. Data on school-day PA opportunities [physical education (PE), recess, and CBPA] were obtained via calendar and teacher-recorded CBPA logs. Daily step counts were measured via accelerometry in 1346 students across 65 classrooms in first through fifth grades. Results: PE, recess, and CBPA contributed significantly to students’ daily steps. Males accrued more steps than females over the school day, during PE, and during recess. No gender disparity was seen in the amount of additional steps accrued during CBPA. Overall step counts were lower among fifth-grade students versus first-grade students, but CBPA attenuated this difference such that grade-level differences were not significant in fifth-grade students who received CBPA. Conclusions: Gender disparities in step totals were present on PE and recess days, but not on CBPA days. CBPA appears to provide equal PA benefits for both genders and to potentially minimize the decline in PA among older students.

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Meghan Edwards and Paul Loprinzi

Objective: Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), calculated as LOG10 (triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), may be utilized to predict risk for cardiovascular disease. Physical activity has been shown to have a favorable association with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The dose–response association between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and AIP has yet to be determined in a nationally representative sample of US adults, which was the purpose of this study. Methods: Data from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 6694 adults aged 20–85 y). Leisure-time physical activity over the previous 30 days was self-reported, whereas AIP was calculated from a venous blood sample. Multivariable linear and logistic regression tested the independent association between MVPA and AIP. Results: The authors observed a significant inverse, graded association between quantile of MVPA and the AIP (P trend < .001). Conclusion: Engaging in MVPA may attenuate the risk for cardiovascular disease via improvements in AIP. More longitudinal research is necessary to confirm these cross-sectional findings.

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David K. Wiggins

Open access

Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

Background: To describe overall physical activity prevalence measured by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire as well as inequalities in leisure-time physical activity among Brazilian adults (15 y and older). Methods: Data from the Brazilian Survey on Medicine Access, Utilization, and Rational Use of Medicines were analyzed. The study was carried out between September 2013 and February 2014. Physical activity was measured through Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and classified according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Additional analysis determined the contribution of each physical activity domain to the total amount of physical activity. Inequalities in terms of sex, age, and socioeconomic position were explored. Results: About one-third of the participants (37.1%; 95% confidence interval, 35.5–38.8) were physically inactive. Work-based activities were responsible for 75.7% of the overall physical activity. The prevalence of participants achieving physical activity guidelines considering only leisure-time activities was 17.8% (95% confidence interval, 16.7–19.2). Females and older participants were less active than their counterparts for both overall and leisure-time physical activity; socioeconomic status was positively associated to leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: Major overall physical activity is attributed to work-related physical activity. Leisure-time physical activity, a key domain for public health, presents important gender and socioeconomic inequalities.