Background: This study investigated the associations of subjectively and objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior with academic achievement. We further examined whether aerobic fitness, obesity, and bedtime mediate these associations. Methods: This study included 970 children aged 9–15 years (52.3% girls) from 9 schools throughout Finland. Register-based academic achievement [grade point average (GPA)] as well as self-reported and accelerometer-measured PA/sedentary behavior were assessed during spring 2013. Aerobic fitness (assessed via a maximal shuttle run test), body composition (assessed via bioimpedance analysis), and self-reported bedtime were collected. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the associations. Standardized regression coefficients are presented. Results: Self-reported PA had a direct positive [β = 0.084; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.023 to 0.145] and an indirect positive association with GPA through higher aerobic fitness (β = 0.061; 95% CI, 0.033 to −0.087). Accelerometer-based PA was not associated with GPA. Self-reported screen time had an indirect negative association with GPA through later bedtime (β = −0.071; 95% CI, −0.096 to −0.035) and lower aerobic fitness (β = −0.039; 95% CI, −0.059 to 0.019). Nonscreen sedentary time had a direct positive (β = 0.193; 95% CI, 0.101 to −0.289) and an indirect negative association with GPA through lower aerobic fitness (β = −0.040; 95% CI, −0.063 to −0.016). Conclusions: Participating in PA, avoiding excessive screen time, and going to bed earlier may benefit academic achievement.
Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin
Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover
Background: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report provides the evidence base for the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd Edition. Methods: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee addressed 38 questions and 104 subquestions selected for their public health relevance, potential to inform public policies and programs, maturity of the relevant science, and applicability to the general US population. Rigorous systematic literature searches and literature reviews were performed using standardized methods. Results: Newly described benefits of physical activity include reduced risk of excessive weight gain in children and adults, incidence of 6 types of cancer, and fall-related injuries in older people. Physical activity is associated with enhanced cognitive function and mental health across the life span, plus improved mental health and physical function. There is no threshold that must be exceeded before benefits begin to accrue; the accrual is most rapid for the least active individuals. Sedentary time is directly associated with elevated risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, incident cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and selected cancer sites. A wide range of intervention strategies have demonstrated success in increasing physical activity. Conclusion: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report provides compelling new evidence to inform physical activity recommendations, practice, and policy.
Greg Petrucci Jr., Patty Freedson, Brittany Masteller, Melanna Cox, John Staudenmayer and John Sirard
Purpose: Determine the sensitivity of the Misfit Shine™ (MS) to detect changes in physical activity (PA) measures (steps, “points,” kCals) in laboratory (LAB) and free-living (FL) conditions. Methods: Twenty-one participants wore the MS and ActiGraph GT3X+™ accelerometer (AG) at the hip and dominant-wrist during three, one-hour LAB sessions: sedentary (SS), sedentary plus walking (SW), and sedentary plus jogging (SJ). Direct observation (DO) of steps served as the criterion measure. Devices were also worn during two FL conditions: 1) active week (ACT) and 2) inactive week (INACT). For LAB and FL, significant differences were examined using paired t-tests and linear mixed effects models, respectively. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate differences between MS estimated steps and DO (α ≤ 0.05). Results: For all hip-worn MS measures and wrist-worn MS estimates of steps and “points,” there was a significant increase (p < .05) from SS to SJ. However, wrist-worn MS kCal estimates were greater for SJ, compared to SS and SW, which were similar to each other (95% CI [95.5, 152.8] and [141.1, 378.9], respectively). Compared with DO, MS hip significantly underestimated steps by 3.5%, while MS wrist significantly overestimated steps by 4.2%. During FL conditions, all MS measures were sensitive to changes between ACT and INACT (p < .0001). Conclusion: Although there were systematic errors in step estimates from the MS, it was sensitive to changes during LAB and FL, and may be a useful tool for interventionists where tracking changes in PA is an important exposure or outcome variable.
Mitch Abrams and Michelle L. Bartlett
The #MeToo movement has brought long needed attention to the epidemic of sexual assault and sexual violence. In the world of sports, the need to prevent and address such acts requires individuals with training in clinical, forensic and sport psychology. These professionals must have particular understanding of the dynamics of sexual violence within the athletic and sport culture. This paper serves to highlight context-specific approaches to pertinent identification and treatment issues. An overview of sexual abuse victim and perpetrator identification will be offered. In addition to the introduction of risk assessment and recommendation of comprehensive prevention programming, treatment needs in the athletic context will be explored. Group-level interventions currently being utilized will be reviewed, recommended topic areas to be covered in protocols will be enumerated and suggestions for systemic and cultural change in the sport domain will be offered.