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Increasing Health Equity for Postpartum Women Through Physical Activity

Corliss Bean and Iris Lesser

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Physical Activity, Long-COVID, and Inactivity: A Detrimental Endless Loop

Giuseppe Lippi, Camilla Mattiuzzi, and Fabian Sanchis-Gomar

The risk of developing medium- and long-term sequelae after recovery from COVID-19 is validated. Long-COVID burden represents a major health care issue, thus paving the way to effective prevention and/or treatment measures. Physical activity prevents many human pathologies, including COVID-19. Being physically active before and immediately after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection substantially lowers the risk of developing long-COVID. In addition, long-COVID is an important cause of physical inactivity. Physically inactive individuals are at increased risk of developing long-COVID, while patients with long-COVID are more likely to reduce their physical activity levels after recovering from the acute infection, with the risk of generating a continuous loop. This harmful interaction needs to be recognized by public health institutions, and the adoption of physical activity as a routine clinical practice in all individuals after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection needs to be proactively promoted.

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The Impact of Removing the 10-Minute Bout Requirement and of Different Survey Administration Methods on National Physical Activity Estimates in Austria

Sylvia Titze, Tessa Strain, Philipp Wagner, Anna Schuster, Jasmin Karner, and Thomas E. Dorner

Background: Monitoring survey methods, as well as movement recommendations, evolves over time. These changes can make trend observations over time difficult. The aim of this study was to examine the differences between 2 computer-assisted survey administration methods and the effect of the omission of the 10-minute minimum bout requirement in physical activity (PA) questions on PA outcomes. Methods: We used data from the second Austrian PA Surveillance System for 2998 adults (18–64 y), applying computer-assisted personal interviewing and computer-assisted web interviewing. Within the computer-assisted web interviewing sample only, we added PA questions without the 10-minute requirement. Quantile and logistic regressions were applied. Results: Between computer-assisted web interviewing and computer-assisted personal interviewing, within the computer-assisted personal interviewing sample, we found lower PA estimates in the leisure domain and work and household domain, but not in the travel domain, and no significant difference in the proportion of people meeting the PA recommendations. In all 3 PA domains, the median minutes did not differ when assessed with or without the 10-minute requirement. However, the percentage participation in the travel domain and work and household domain performing >0 minutes per week PA was higher when there was no 10-minute requirement. The proportion of people meeting the Austrian aerobic recommendation for adults when computed with or without the 10-minute requirement did not differ. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the omission of the 10-minute requirement does not seem to result in marked differences in PA estimates or the proportion of adults meeting the recommendations.

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The Legacy of an All-Around Physical Activity and Health Scientist: Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

Ashley Cathro, Deanivea Mendes Felix, Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Susana Lopez, Zijian Lu, Pedro Gustavo Machado, Diana Morales, Francisco Timbó de Paiva Neto, Ana Selzer, Anne Tang, Rafael Miranda Tassitano, Maria Cecilia Marinho Tenório, Kaiyue Zhang, Wenbo Zhao, and Pedro C. Hallal

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Association Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Occupation Activity Level, National Health Interview Survey—United States, 2020

Jasmine Y. Nakayama, Miriam E. Van Dyke, Tyler D. Quinn, and Geoffrey P. Whitfield

Background: Physical activity for any purpose counts toward meeting Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG). However, national surveillance systems traditionally focus on leisure-time physical activity. There is an incomplete understanding of the association between meeting PAG in leisure time and occupation activity level among US workers. Methods: We used cross-sectional 2020 National Health Interview Survey data to examine US adults aged 18–64 years who worked the week before the survey (n = 14,814). We estimated the proportion meeting aerobic and muscle-strengthening PAG in leisure time by occupation activity level (low, intermediate, and high). Using logistic regression, we examined the association between meeting PAG in leisure time and occupation activity level, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and stratified by hours worked. We compared the sociodemographic characteristics of adults working ≥40 hours (the previous week) in high-activity occupations to those in low- or intermediate-activity occupations. Results: Adults working in high-activity occupations were less likely to meet PAG in leisure time (26.1% [24.3–28.1]) versus those in low-activity (30.6% [29.1–32.2], P < .01) or intermediate-activity (32.4% [30.8–34.2]) occupations. In stratified, adjusted models, adults working ≥40 hours in low- and intermediate-activity occupations were 13% and 20%, respectively, more likely to meet PAG in leisure time versus those in high-activity occupations. Among those working ≥40 hours, adults in high-activity occupations were more likely to be Hispanic or Latino, male, younger, and have a high school education or lower compared with those in less active occupations. Conclusion: Traditional surveillance may underestimate meeting PAG among people working in high-activity occupations, potentially disproportionately affecting certain groups.

Open access

Physical Activity Levels, Correlates, and All-Cause Mortality Risk in People Living With Different Health Conditions

Jenny M. Marks-Vieveen, Léonie Uijtdewilligen, Ehsan Motazedi, Dominique P.M. Stijnman, Inge van den Akker-Scheek, Adrie J. Bouma, Laurien M. Buffart, Vincent de Groot, Ellen de Hollander, Judith G.M. Jelsma, Johan de Jong, Helco G. van Keeken, Leonie A. Krops, Marike van der Leeden, Stephan A. Loer, Willem van Mechelen, Femke van Nassau, Joske Nauta, Evert Verhagen, Wanda Wendel-Vos, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Johannes Zwerver, Rienk Dekker, and Hidde P. van der Ploeg

Background: To better understand physical activity behavior and its health benefits in people living with health conditions, we studied people with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions with regard to (1) their physical activity levels, (2) factors correlated with these physical activity levels, and (3) the association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. Methods: We used a subsample (n = 88,659) of the Lifelines cohort study from the Netherlands. For people living with and without 20 different self-reported health conditions, we studied the aforementioned factors in relation to physical activity. Physical activity was assessed with the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity Questionnaire, and mortality data were obtained from the Dutch death register. Results: People with a reported health condition were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines than people without a reported health condition (odds ratios ranging from 0.55 to 0.89). Higher body mass index and sitting time, and lower self-rated health, physical functioning, and education levels were associated with lower odds of meeting physical activity guidelines across most health conditions. Finally, we found a protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality in both people living with and without different health conditions. Conclusion: People living with different health conditions are generally less physically active compared with people living without a health condition. Both people living with and without self-reported health conditions share a number of key factors associated with physical activity levels. We also observed the expected protective association between physical activity and all-cause mortality.

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After-School Activities of Japanese Elementary School Children: Comparison of Children Who Attend Lessons and Cram Schools With Those Who Do Not

Yasuo Kojima

Background: This study examined the after-school activities of Japanese elementary school children in which little information is available for understanding the process by which participation in organized activities leads to the decrease in children’s independent mobility. Methods: One thousand eight hundred and twenty-four mothers of elementary school children participated in an online survey. The mothers responded to the questions on the number of lessons (or cram schools) their children attended weekdays, as well as their children’s behavior after classes, and parents providing transportation when their children go out to play. Results: The proportion of children attending lessons and/or cram schools increased as their grades progressed. A significant interaction existed between the degree of parental transportation and grade in terms of whether or not the children attended lessons and/or cram schools. Parental involvement included pick up or drop-off for a large percentage of younger children without lessons, whereas the degree of parental involvement was greater for older children attending lessons. In other words, parents of children without attending lessons or cram schools tended to allow children to engage in independent activities when they reached the higher grades, whereas parents of children who frequently attended lessons and cram schools tended to remain involved in transporting their children, even when they reached the higher grades. Conclusions: The results suggested that the participation of children in organized activities leads to a routine of parental pickup and/or drop-off, which renders difficult the facilitation of opportunities for children to independently participate in play activities.

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Erratum. Quantifying Area-Level Physical Activity Offerings in Social Context: A Novel Concept That Goes Beyond Walkability and Access to Open Spaces

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Physical Activity Policies at National and Subnational Levels: A Study in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico

Juliana Mejía Grueso, Michael Pratt, Eugen Resendiz, Deborah Salvo, Gloria Isabel Niño Cruz, Nubia Yaneth Ruiz Gómez, Rafael Alexander Leandro Gómez, Inés Revuelta Sánchez, Gerardo Alonso Araya Vargas, Angélica María Ochoa Avilés, Raúl Francisco Pérez Tasigchana, Alejandra Jáuregui, Pedro C. Hallal, and Andrea Ramírez Varela

Background: National physical activity (PA) policy processes are only beginning to be studied in Latin America, and little attention has focused at the subnational level. This study examined national–subnational relations in the policy process (agenda setting, policy formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation) in selected Latin American countries. Methods: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity’s (GoPA!) INTEGRATE-PA-Pol tool was applied in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico. Data were collected in matched pairs of the capital plus one noncapital city among national and subnational policymakers (n = 27), previously identified by the GoPA! Country Contacts. PA policy development and implementation were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-three (response rate = 85.2%) informants provided data, mainly from the health sector (52.2%), followed by the sport (26.1%), transport (13.0%), and education (8.7%) sectors. Most informants reported that their countries had a current PA policy embedded within noncommunicable diseases prevention plans (46.2%), other plans (46.2%), or obesity prevention/management/control plans (7.7%). Respondents at the subnational level rated PA promotion as central (64.3%), while the national-level role was important but not central (75.0%). National and subnational policymakers indicated low-to-little involvement in the other level’s PA policy processes across the 5 policy stages. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that collecting national and subnational PA policy data across countries with the active collaboration of the GoPA! network was feasible. We also successfully identified governmental interactions throughout the PA policy process, suggesting suboptimal engagement between national and subnational levels.

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Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning—Powerful Yet Underutilized Tools and Algorithms in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Research

Vahid Farrahi and Philip Clare