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Katherine L. Smulligan, Mathew J. Wingerson, Corrine N. Seehusen, Casey C. Little, Julie C. Wilson, and David R. Howell

Context: The relationship between physical activity (PA) and fear of pain with movement (ie, kinesiophobia) during concussion recovery is unknown. Kinesiophobia may limit PA, while PA after concussion may reduce kinesiophobia. Our purpose was to examine the correlation between PA and self-reported kinesiophobia during concussion recovery for adolescents with and without persistent symptoms. Design: Prospective cohort study of children ages 10–18 years within 14 days of concussion. Methods: Participants rated kinesiophobia using the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) at initial (≤14 d postconcussion) and return to play (RTP) assessments, and wore activity monitors between assessments. Our primary outcome was TSK score change from initial to RTP assessments. We grouped participants based on whether they experienced persistent symptoms (symptoms ≥28 days) or not (symptoms <28 days) and calculated correlation coefficients (Pearson r for normally distributed and Spearman rho for nonnormally distributed variables) between PA variables and TSK change scores. Results: Among the 41 participants enrolled, 44% developed persistent symptoms (n = 18; age = 14.5 [2.0] y; 50% female; symptom duration = 57.3 [6.2] d; RTP = 66.8 [6.4] d) and 56% did not (n = 23; age = 14.9 [1.8] y; 48% female; symptom duration = 15.2 [1.5] d; RTP = 21.7 [1.9] d). For the persistent symptoms group, greater TSK change scores (mean = −2.5 [5.7] point change) were significantly and moderately correlated with higher daily step count (r = −.60, P = .008) and exercise frequency (r = −.63, P = .005), but were not correlated with exercise duration (ρ = −.12, P = .65). Among the no persistent symptoms group, TSK change scores (mean = −6.0 [5.0] point change) were not correlated with step count (r = −.18, P = .41) or exercise duration (ρ = .10, P = .67), and the correlation with frequency was low and not significant (r = −.34, P = .12). Conclusions: Regular PA during concussion recovery, regardless of duration or intensity, may help reduce kinesiophobia for those experiencing persistent symptoms.

Open access

Susann Arnell, Kajsa Jerlinder, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist

Background: Participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism is often conditional. However, there is a lack of methods for identifying these specific conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the feasibility of a Q-sort tool to map individual-specific conditions for participation in physical activity among adolescents with autism and to identify different viewpoints regarding conditions for such participation. Method: An exploratory mixed-methods design was employed to investigate the feasibility of using Q methodology and the Q-sort procedure to identify what individual-specific conditions are important for participation in physical activity for adolescents with autism. Results: The adolescents ranked the statements with varying levels of ease. Two viewpoints were identified: Autonomous participation without surprises and Enjoyment of activity in a safe social context. Conclusion: Q-sort is a feasible method for mapping conditions for participation, which can guide the development of tailored physical activity interventions.

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Cameron J. Powden, Rachel M. Koldenhoven, Janet E. Simon, John J. Fraser, Adam B. Rosen, Abbis Jaffri, Andrew B. Mitchell, and Christopher J. Burcal

Context: Intervention studies for chronic ankle instability (CAI) often focus on improving physical impairments of the ankle complex. However, using an impairments-focused approach may miss psychological factors that may mediate function and recovery. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures can be used to assess several dimensions of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and deliver enhanced patient-centered care. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate group-level improvements in HRQoL and treatment response rates following various interventions in patients with CAI. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Data from 7 previous studies were pooled by the chronic ankle instability outcomes network for participant-level analysis, resulting in 136 patients with CAI. Several interventions were assessed including balance training, gait biofeedback, joint mobilizations, stretching, and strengthening, with treatment volume ranging from 1 to 4 weeks. Outcome measures were PROs that assessed ankle-specific function (Foot and Ankle Ability Measure), injury-related fear (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and Fear Avoidance Belief Questionnaire), and global well-being (Disablement in the Physically Active); the PROs assessed varied between studies. Preintervention to postintervention changes were evaluated using separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and effect sizes, and a responder analysis was conducted for each PRO. Results: Significant, moderate to large improvements were observed in PROs that assessed ankle-specific function, injury-related fear, and global well-being following intervention (P < .001). Responder rates ranged from 39.0% to 53.3%, 12.8% to 51.4%, and 37.8% for ankle specific function, injury-related fear, and global well-being, respectively. Conclusions: Various interventions can lead to positive improvements in HRQoL in patients with CAI. Treatment response rates at improving HRQoL are similar to response rates at improving impairments such as balance, further reinforcing the need for individualized treatment approaches when treating a patient with CAI.

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Cathleen N. Brown, Viktor E. Bovbjerg, Michael T. Soucy, SeokJae Choe, Michael Fredericson, and Janet E. Simon

Context: Health care utilization and the occurrence of non-time-loss (NTL) lateral ankle sprains is not well documented in collegiate athletes but could provide better estimates of injury burden and inform clinician workload. Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: Lateral ankle sprain injury occurrence for Division I collegiate student-athletes in a conference with 32 sports representing 732 team seasons was collected during the 2018–2019 through 2020–2021 academic years. Injuries were designated as acute or overuse, and time-loss (TL) or NTL. Associated health care utilization, including athletic training services (AT services), and physician encounters were reported along with anatomical structures involved and season of occurrence. Results: A total of 1242 lateral ankle sprains were reported over the 3 years from 732 team seasons and 17,431 player seasons, resulting in 12,728 AT services and 370 physician encounters. Most lateral ankle sprains were acute-TL (59.7%), which were associated with the majority of AT services (74.1%) and physician encounters (70.0%). Acute-NTL sprains represented 37.8% of lateral ankle sprains and were associated with 22.3% of AT services and 27.0% of physician encounters. On average, there were 12.7 (5.8) AT services per acute-TL sprain and 6.0 (3.6) per acute-NTL sprain. Most sprains involved “ankle lateral ligaments” (45.6%), and very few were attributed to overuse mechanisms (2.4%). Conclusions: Lateral ligament sprains are a common injury across many sports and result in substantial health care utilization from ATs and physicians, including NTL lateral ankle sprains. Although TL injuries were the majority of sprains, a substantial proportion of sprains were NTL and accounted for a considerable proportion of health care utilization.

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Xavier D. Thompson, Thomas M. Newman, Catherine C. Donahue, Nicholas K. Erdman, Siobhan M. Statuta, and Jacob E. Resch

Context: Athletes with a history of sport concussion (SC) have an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury (MSK); however, the underlying mechanisms have yet to be determined. The purpose of our study was to evaluate kinesiophobia in college athletes with or without a time-loss MSK within 180 days of unrestricted return to play following a SC. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study within a sports medicine facility. Methods: Participants were eligible if they were diagnosed with a SC, completed the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and completed an unrestricted return to play. Fifty-six college athletes (40 men and 16 women) with an average age of 19.5 (1.25) years, height of 183.5 (10.45) cm, and mass of 94.72 (24.65) kg, were included in the study. MSK participants were matched to non-MSK participants 1:1. Demographic and TSK outcome scores were compared using independent t tests. The proportion of participants in each group who scored above the clinical threshold (TSK ≥ 37) was compared using a chi-square analysis. Alpha was set at α = .05. Results: The MSK group (31.2 [6.30]) reported similar TSK scores to the matched group (28.9 [3.34]; t 54 = 1.70, P = .10, d = 0.45 [ 0.08 to 0.97]). A greater proportion of athletes who were diagnosed with an MSK-reported scores above the cutoff (χ 2[1] = 6.49, P = .01). Conclusions: Athletes diagnosed with SC had similar kinesiophobia values regardless of MSK status. However, a higher proportion of athletes with a time-loss MSK injury reported a TSK score greater than the clinical cutoff. Our results suggest that factors such as kinesiophobia should be considered following a SC.

Open access

Jeffrey J. Martin

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Toru Tanabe, Takumi Watabu, Hiroichi Miaki, Naoyuki Kubo, Tiharu Inaoka Pleiades, Tomonari Sugano, and Katsunori Mizuno

Context: The incidence of low back pain (LBP) is high among high school male soft tennis players. In some sports for which the rotational component of the body is important, an association between restricted hip internal rotation of the nondominant leg and LBP has been reported; however, whether this association holds in soft tennis is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the association between hip internal rotation, hip external rotation, hamstring flexibility, iliopsoas flexibility, and LBP incidence. Design: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, conducted at a sports training center. Methods: Participants comprised 113 male elite high school soft tennis players (age: 16.1 [0.7] y) from 9 elite-level teams. The main outcome measures were the hip internal and external rotation range of motion, hamstring flexibility on the straight leg raise test, and iliopsoas flexibility on the Thomas test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of main outcomes on LBP incidence in the past 1 year. Results: A total of 35 participants had LBP (LBP group); 78 participants did not have LBP (non-LBP group). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for height was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.16; P = .043) and for the hip internal rotation range of motion in the nondominant leg was 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.85–0.95; P < .001), indicating significant associations with LBP. Conclusion: Hip internal rotation range of motion in the nondominant leg and height were crucial factors related to LBP in male elite high school soft tennis players.

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Kenneth C. Lam, Ashley N. Marshall, Brandon Holland, R. Curtis Bay, Erik A. Wikstrom, and Alison R. Snyder Valier

Context: Ankle sprains are common during sport participation and associated with long-term deficits in self-report of function. However, little is known of short-term changes in self-report of function following injury. The authors aimed to assess statistical and clinically meaningful changes in self-report of function, as measured by the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM), during the first 2 weeks after an ankle sprain injury. Design: A retrospective analysis of electronic medical records. Methods: Eighty-eight patients, who were diagnosed with an ankle sprain injury by an athletic trainer, received usual care from an athletic trainer, and completed the FAAM during treatment at weeks 1 and 2 postinjury. The authors calculated the percentage of patients who reported clinically meaningful changes and used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare differences in FAAM scores between time points. Results: Between weeks 1 and 2, significant differences were noted for the FAAM Activities of Daily Living (FAAM-ADL) (P < .001) and FAAM Sport (FAAM-Sport) (P < .001). At the patient level, 86.5% (64/74) and 85.2% (69/81) of patients reported changes that exceeded the minimal clinically important difference value for the FAAM-ADL and FAAM-Sport, respectively, between weeks 1 and 2. At week 2, 31.8% (28/88) and 47.7% (42/88) of patients reported a score below 90% on the FAAM-ADL and below 80% on the FAAM-Sport subscale, respectively. Also, 36.4% (32/88) and 25.0% (22/88) of patients reported a score of 100% on the FAAM-ADL and FAAM-Sport subscales, respectively, at week 2. Conclusions: Patients report statistically significant and meaningful improvements in self-report of function during the first 2 weeks following ankle sprain injury. However, almost half of patients still report deficits in sport function at 2 weeks postinjury. Patient-reported outcome measures such as the FAAM, can help capture the patient’s perception of function and inform patient care decisions. Research efforts should explore individual response patterns to treatment.

Open access

Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.