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Adam B. Rosen, Abbis Jaffri, Andrew Mitchell, Rachel M. Koldenhoven, Cameron J. Powden, John J. Fraser, Janet E. Simon, Matthew Hoch, and Christopher J. Burcal

Context: Ankle sprains result in pain and disability. While factors such as body mass and prior injury contribute to subsequent injury, the association of the number of ankle sprains on body anthropometrics and self-reported function are unclear in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess differences in anthropometric measurements and self-reported function between the number of ankle sprains utilizing a large, pooled data set. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Data were pooled from 14 studies (total N = 412) collected by the Chronic Ankle Instability Outcomes Network. Participants were categorized by the number of self-reported sprains. Anthropometric data and self-reported function were compared between those who reported a single versus >1 ankle sprain as well as among groups of those who had 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 ankle sprains, respectively. Results: Those who had >1 ankle sprain had higher mass (P = .001, d = 0.33) and body mass index (P = .002, d = 0.32) and lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Activities of Daily Living (P < .001, r = .22), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport (P < .001, r = .33), and Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (P < .001, r = .34) scores compared to the single ankle sprain group. Those who had a single ankle sprain weighed less than those who reported ≥5 sprains (P = .008, d = 0.42) and had a lower body mass index than those who reported 2 sprains (P = .031, d = 0.45). Conclusions: Some individuals with a history of multiple ankle sprains had higher body mass and self-reported disability compared to those with a single sprain, factors that are likely interrelated. Due to the potential for long-term health concerns associated with ankle sprains, clinicians should incorporate patient education and interventions that promote physical activity, healthy dietary intake, and optimize function as part of comprehensive patient-centered care.

Open access

Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird

The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.

Open access

Ju-Yul Yoon, Seung-Rok Kang, Hye-Seong Kim, Yu Hui Won, Sung-Hee Park, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Myoung-Hwan Ko, and Gi-Wook Kim

Context: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training improves muscle strength and balance. Few studies have focused on the effects of WBV frequencies below 30 Hz. We aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency WBV training on muscle activity, fatigue recovery, and oxygen consumption (VO2). Design: Prospective single-group, repeated-measures study. Methods: In this controlled laboratory setting study, 20 healthy adults (age 23.26 [1.66] y) performed half squats at 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 30-Hz WBV. Muscle activity was evaluated using the root mean square and peak electromyography amplitude of 6 muscles (iliocostalis, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius) obtained via surface electromyography. VO2 was measured during the squats using a gas analyzer, and fatigue recovery was evaluated using measurements of lactate after the squats and after a recovery period. Statistical significance was set at P < .05, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine differences in muscle activity, fatigue, recovery, and VO2, with post hoc analyses as appropriate. Results: Of the 6 muscles measured, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius alone significantly increased from 0 Hz at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 Hz based on the root mean square values and at 4, 8, 12, and 30 Hz based on the peak electromyography amplitude values. There were no significant differences in the other muscles. There were no significant differences in VO2 or in lactate levels. Conclusions: Low-frequency WBV during squat exercises significantly increased the activity of the gastrocnemius medialis only at specific frequencies in healthy young adults. Low-frequency WBV is safe and has the potential to increase muscle activity.

Open access

Ashley N. Marshall and Jennifer S. Howard

Open access

Karlee Burns, Leah Sanford, Ryan Tierney, and Jane McDevitt

Clinical Question: Do sports-related mild traumatic brain injury in adolescents and young adults produce changes that can be identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging that are associated with memory impairment? Clinical Bottom Line: After sport-related mild traumatic brain injury, functional magnetic resonance imaging identified inconsistent structural changes (e.g., cortical thickness changes, brain activation patterns), and negative performance changes in memory function (e.g., lower neuropsychological scores) in adolescents and young adults 9 days to more than a year following injury.

Open access

Shinji Yamaguchi, Yujiro Kawata, Yuka Murofushi, Nobuto Shibata, and Tsuneyoshi Ota

This study examined the stress coping strategies of athletes with high psychological vulnerability. The participants were 487 university athletes (mean age = 19.8 years, SD = 0.88, 153 women). Data were collected using the Vulnerability Scale for University Athletes and General Coping Questionnaire and analyzed by conducting a multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant relationships between vulnerability and coping strategies (r = .11−.39). Vulnerability was most strongly related to the emotional support seeking aspect of emotion-oriented coping (r = .39). There was no significant difference in cognitive reinterpretation (r = .07). Vulnerability had a stronger relationship with emotion-oriented than problem-oriented coping, and high (vs. low) vulnerability athletes had significantly higher emotion-oriented-coping scores. These results suggest that vulnerable athletes need to be provided with appropriate emotional support to cope with stressful situations, as they rely heavily on a stress management strategy focusing on emotion regulation.

Open access

Tatiana Tapajcikova, Dávid Líška, Ladislav Batalik, Clea P. Tucker, and Alena Kobesova

High-quality sensory perception and body scheme (somatognosis) are important aspects for sport performance. This study compares stereognosis, body scheme, and kinesthesia in a group of 36 competitive karate athletes against a control group of 32 general population participants. The stereognosis Petrie test, two body scheme tests, and three kinesthesia tests served as outcome measurement tools. No significant difference was found in the stereognosis Petrie test, for the dominant (p = .389) or the nondominant (p = .791) hand, nor in the kinesthesia test (dominant, p = .661 and nondominant, p = .051). Karate athletes performed significantly better in the body scheme tests, that is, fist width estimation (p = .024) and shoulder width estimation (p = .019), as well as in karate-specific kinesthesia tests, that is, single punch (p = .010) and triple punch (p = .001). This study confirms competitive karate athletes have significantly better somatognosis, and better accuracy when performing quick dynamic movements compared with the general population.

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Megan J. Schroeder, Samuel A. Acuña, Chandramouli Krishnan, and Yasin Y. Dhaher

Changes in knee mechanics following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are known to be magnified during more difficult locomotor tasks, such as when descending stairs. However, it is unclear if increased task difficulty could distinguish differences in forces generated by the muscles surrounding the knee. This study examined how knee muscle forces differ between individuals with ACL reconstruction with different graft types (hamstring tendon and patellar tendon autograft) and “healthy” controls when performing tasks with increasing difficulty. Dynamic simulations were used to identify knee muscle forces in 15 participants when walking overground and descending stairs. The analysis was restricted to the stance phase (foot contact through toe-off), yielding 162 separate simulations of locomotion in increasing difficulty: overground walking, step-to-floor stair descent, and step-to-step stair descent. Results indicated that knee muscle forces were significantly reduced after ACL reconstruction, and stair descent tasks better discriminated changes in the quadriceps and gastrocnemii muscle forces in the reconstructed knees. Changes in quadriceps forces after a patellar tendon graft and changes in gastrocnemii forces after a hamstring tendon graft were only revealed during stair descent. These results emphasize the importance of incorporating sufficiently difficult tasks to detect residual deficits in muscle forces after ACL reconstruction.