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Erratum. Swimming With the COSMED AquaTrainer and K5 Wearable Metabolic System in Breath-by-Breath Mode: Accuracy, Precision, and Repeatability

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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The Fine-Tuning Approach for Training Monitoring

Daniel Boullosa, João Gustavo Claudino, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Daniel Bok, Irineu Loturco, Matthew Stults-Kolehmainen, Juan García-López, and Carl Foster

Purpose: Monitoring is a fundamental part of the training process to guarantee that the programmed training loads are executed by athletes and result in the intended adaptations and enhanced performance. A number of monitoring tools have emerged during the last century in sport. These tools capture different facets (eg, psychophysiological, physical, biomechanical) of acute training bouts and chronic adaptations while presenting specific advantages and limitations. Therefore, there is a need to identify what tools are more efficient in each sport context for better monitoring of training process. Methods and Results: We present and discuss the fine-tuning approach for training monitoring, which consists of identifying and combining the best monitoring tools with experts’ knowledge in different sport settings, designed to improve (1) the control of actual training loads and (2) understanding of athletes’ training adaptations. Instead of using single-tool approaches or merely subjective decision making, the identification of the best combination of monitoring tools to assist experts’ decisions in each specific context (ie, triangulation) is necessary to better understand the link between acute and chronic adaptations and their impact on health and performance. Future studies should elaborate on the identification of the best combination of monitoring tools for each specific sport setting. Conclusion: The fine-tuning monitoring approach requires the simultaneous use of several valid and practical tools, instead of a single tool, to improve the effectiveness of monitoring practices when added to experts’ knowledge.

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Erratum. Competitive Cross-Country Skiers Have Longer Time to Exhaustion Than Recreational Cross-Country Skiers During Intermittent Work Intervals Normalized to Their Maximal Aerobic Power

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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Erratum. Inconsistent Effect of Psychometric-Scale Familiarization on the Relationship Between Ratings of Perceived Exertion and External Load Measures in Elite Youth Soccer Players

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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On-Field Methodological Approach to Monitor the Menstrual Cycle and Hormonal Phases in Elite Female Athletes

Marine Dupuit, Alice Meignié, Tom Chassard, Ludivine Blanquet, Julien LeHeran, Thomas Delaunay, Elise Bernardeau, Jean-François Toussaint, Martine Duclos, and Juliana Antero

Objectives: Currently, there are no guidelines for implementing the monitoring of menstrual status, including the natural menstrual cycle (NC) or oral contraception (OC), in a sport setting. We aimed to provide a feasible, on-field methodological approach for monitoring NC and OC in female athletes. Methods: We developed a smartphone app with daily questionnaires to monitor both NC and OC phases in 19 elite female soccer players (23.7 [4.4] y) over 7 months. Adherence and compliance were evaluated. The NC and OC phases were based on calendar data to establish an individual menstrual profile for each athlete. Results: The initial questionnaire revealed that the vast majority of female players (80%) were interested in monitoring their menstrual status. The online monitoring yielded high athlete adherence (87.0% [14.2%]) with a slight decrease over the winter break and at the end of the championship, which necessitated adaptations to promote compliance. Monitoring identified the specific menstrual pattern of each athlete and highlighted large interindividual variability. Conclusion: This study assesses, for the first time, the interest of female players in monitoring their menstrual status. It provides a new methodological approach, as well as guidelines for optimizing on-field monitoring. It also anticipates some obstacles sport staff may encounter when trying to implement such follow-up. It is essential to better understand the menstrual profile of athletes and determine its potential impacts on well-being and performance.

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Performance Science Domains: Contemporary Strategies for Teams Preparing for the Rugby World Cup

Liam P. Kilduff, David B. Pyne, and Christian J. Cook

Purpose: As the start of the 10th Rugby Union World Cup approaches, performance staff will be working on the final elements of their teams’ preparation. Much of this planning and preparation will be underpinned by the latest performance science research. In this invited commentary, we discuss contemporary performance science research in rugby union centered around 4 key performance domains. First, we outline a systematic approach to developing an overall understanding of the game demands and how performance staff can enhance the players’ preparedness for competition. We then move on to outline our understanding of the training science domain, followed by a brief overview of effective recovery strategies at major tournaments. Finally, we outline research in the area of competition-day strategies and how they can positively impact players’ readiness to compete. Conclusions: Evaluating a team’s preparation for the Rugby Union World Cup can be achieved by mapping their performance plan based on the 4 domains outlined above.

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The Physical Preparation of Players for the Rugby World Cup

David B. Pyne, Christian J. Cook, and Liam P. Kilduff

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Erratum. Hematological Adaptations Following a Training Camp in Hot and/or Hypoxic Conditions in Elite Rugby Union Players

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Unpleasant Salty or Bitter Solutions Does Not Improve Cycling Sprint Performance in Trained Cyclists

Edward A. Gray, Rocco Cavaleri, and Jason C. Siegler

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of mouth rinsing and ingesting unpleasant salty or bitter solutions on cycling sprint performance and knee extensor force characteristics. Eleven male and one female trained cyclists (age: 34 ± 9 years, maximal oxygen uptake 56.9 ± 3.9 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed a ramp test and familiarization followed by four experimental trials. In each trial, participants completed an all-out 30-s cycling sprint with knee extensor maximal voluntary contractions before and immediately after the sprint. In a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over order, the four main trials were: a no solution control condition, water, salty (5.8%), or bitter (2 mM quinine) solutions that were mouth rinsed (10 s) and ingested immediately before the cycling sprint. There were no significant differences between conditions in mean power (mean ± SD, no solution: 822 ± 115 W, water: 818 ± 108 W, salt: 832 ± 111 W, bitter: 818 ± 105 W); peak power (no solution: 1,184 ± 205 W, water: 1,177 ± 207 W, salt: 1,195 ± 210 W, bitter: 1,184 ± 209 W); or fatigue index (no solution: 51.5% ± 5.7%, water: 50.8% ± 7.0%, salt: 51.1% ± 5.9%, bitter: 51.2% ± 7.1%) during the sprint. Maximal force and impulse declined postexercise; however, there were no significant differences between conditions in knee extensor force characteristics. The present data do not support the use of unpleasant salty or bitter solutions as an ergogenic aid to improve sprint exercise performance.

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Competitive Cross-Country Skiers Have Longer Time to Exhaustion Than Recreational Cross-Country Skiers During Intermittent Work Intervals Normalized to Their Maximal Aerobic Power

Eivind Holsbrekken, Øyvind Gløersen, Magne Lund-Hansen, and Thomas Losnegard

Purpose: To investigate differences in time to exhaustion (TTE), O2 uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ), and accumulated O2 deficit ( O 2 def ) between competitive and recreational cross-country (XC) skiers during an intermittent-interval protocol standardized for maximal aerobic power (MAP). Methods: Twelve competitive (maximal V ˙ O 2 [ V ˙ O 2 max ] = 76.5 ± 3.8 mL · kg 1 · min 1 ) and 10 recreational ( V ˙ O 2 max = 63.5 ± 6.3 mL · kg 1 · min 1 ) male XC skiers participated. All tests were performed on a rollerski treadmill in the V2 ski-skating technique. To quantify MAP and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD), the skiers performed a steady-state submaximal test followed by a 1000-m time trial. After a 60-minute break, TTE, V ˙ O 2 , and accumulated O 2 def were measured during an intermittent-interval protocol (40-s work and 20-s recovery), which was individually tailored to 120% and 60% of each subject’s MAP. Results: During the 1000-m time trial, the competitive skiers had 21% (95% CI, 12%–30%) shorter finish time and 24% (95% CI, 14%–34%) higher MAP (all P < .01) than the recreational skiers. No difference was observed in relative exercise intensity (average power/MAP; P = .28), MAOD (P = .18), or fractional utilization of V ˙ O 2 max . During the intermittent-interval protocol, the competitive skiers had 34% (95% CI, 3%–65%) longer TTE (P = .03) and accumulated 61% (95% CI, 27%–95%) more O 2 def (P = .001) than the recreational skiers during work phases. Conclusions: Competitive XC skiers have longer TTE and accumulate more O 2 def than recreational XC skiers during an intermittent-interval protocol at similar intensity relative to MAP. This implies that performance in intermittent endurance sports is related to the ability to repeatedly recharge fractions of MAOD.