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Erratum. Patterns and Correlates of Participation in a Weekly Mass Participation Physical Activity Event, parkrun, in Australia, 2011–2020

Journal of Physical Activity and Health

Open access

Gender Differences in Caregivers’ Attitudes to Risky Child Play in Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Andrea D. Smith, Helen F. Dodd, Luiza Ricardo, and Esther van Sluijs

Background: This study examines gender differences in parental attitudes toward risky play for 5- to 11-year-old boys and girls in Britain. Methods: Analyses use data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative British Child Play Survey. Survey respondents were caregivers of primary-school-aged children living in Britain. Parent self-reported their risk tolerance in play via the Tolerance for Risk in Play Scale (TRiPS) and the Risk Engagement and Protection Survey (REPS). The REPS includes subscales that assess caregiver attitudes around “Protection from Injury” (PFI) and “Engagement with Risk” (EWR) in relation to children’s play. Multiple linear regression compared caregiver gender differences in TRiPS, REPS-PFI, and REPS-EWR at the item level, and overall. Associations between child gender and these scales were also examined. Results: Among 1919 caregivers, no significant gender differences emerged in mean TRiPS (P = .72), REPS-EWR (P = .58), and REPS-PFI (P = .34) scores. Activity-specific differences were evident in caregivers’ tolerance for individual risky play activities (15/31 activities). Parents of boys exhibited higher risk tolerance (B = −4.48, P < .01) and willingness for their child to engage in risky play (B = −0.63, P < .01) than parents of girls. Conclusions: While there was no difference between male and female caregivers overall attitudes, gender differences were prominent for specific play activities and attitudes, with male caregivers demonstrating higher tolerance for the riskiest activities. Parents of boys expressed more permissive attitudes toward engagement in risky play. Further work is needed to identify why there is gender-related variation in these attitudes and should be considered in interventions that support parents in enabling adventurous play opportunities for children.

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ISPAH Statement on the Passing of Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

The ISPAH Executive Committee, on behalf of the ISPAH board and members

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Breaking Barriers: An Innovative Tool to Assess the National and City-Level Physical Activity Policy Development to Practice Disconnect

Eugen Resendiz, Andrea Ramírez-Varela, Juliana Mejía-Grueso, Jane Moon, Josef Mitáš, Ross C. Brownson, Deborah Salvo, and Michael Pratt

Background: Population-level physical activity increases are improbable without intersectoral collaboration across government levels and sectors to develop and implement physical activity promotion policies. This study aims to provide information about the development of the Interaction between National and Local Government Levels in Development and Implementation of Physical Activity Policies Tool (INTEGRATE PA-Pol). A framework was created to examine the development and implementation of national and subnational physical activity policies and the (mis)alignment between government levels. Methods: The work was conducted in 3 phases: (1) a scoping review was carried out to identify local government physical activity promotion policies and instruments for assessing them, (2) an expert group designed 6 questionnaires, and (3) cognitive response testing was employed for validity testing and item modification with a panel of research and policy experts. Results: The INTEGRATE PA-Pol Tool consists of 6 questionnaires assessing how national and subnational governments collaborate to develop and implement physical activity promotion policies. Conclusion: This tool can assist in better understanding the development and implementation of a public policy monitoring system that will allow for benchmarking and priority setting to comprehend how physical activity promotion policies are designed and executed.

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Prevalence and Health Associations of Meeting the World Health Organization Guidelines for Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep in Preschool-Aged Children: The SUNRISE Mongolia Pilot and Feasibility Study

Ankhmaa Byambaa, Oyundelger Dechinjamts, Bayasgalan Jambaldorj, Rachel A. Jones, Kar Hau Chong, and Anthony D. Okely

Background: There is a lack of evidence regarding 24-hour movement behaviors of young children from low- and middle-income countries. This study examined Mongolian preschoolers’ adherence to the World Health Organization’s guidelines for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep; their associations with health indicators, and the feasibility of the SUNRISE International study in Mongolia. Methods: Preschool-aged children were recruited from 5 kindergartens in urban and rural areas of Ulaanbaatar city and Tuv province in Mongolia. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured by an ActiGraph accelerometer worn for 5 consecutive days. Screen time and sleep were reported by parents. The National Institute of Health and Early Years Toolboxes were used to assess motor skills and executive function, respectively. Results: One hundred and one children participated in the study (mean age = 4.82 y, boys = 58), with 88% (n = 89) having complete data for analysis. The proportion of children who met the recommendations for physical activity, sedentary screen time, and sleep was 61%, 23%, and 82%, respectively. Only 7% met all recommendations. Meeting the sleep recommendation individually (P = .032) and in combination with the physical activity recommendation was associated with better gross (P = .019) and fine (P = .042) motor skills. Spending more time in physical activity was positively correlated with motor development. Results confirmed that the SUNRISE study protocol was feasible, age-appropriate, and enjoyable for children. Conclusions: The results of the SUNRISE pilot study will help inform the SUNRISE Mongolia main study and lay the groundwork for future research into children’s 24-hour movement behaviors in Mongolia.

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The Legacy of Harold Willis Kohl III

Loretta DiPietro

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Remembering Dr. Harold W. (Bill) Kohl III

Deborah Salvo

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Physical Literacy in the Context of Climate Change: Is There a Need for Further Refinement of the Concept?

Johannes Carl, Karim Abu-Omar, Paquito Bernard, Julia Lohmann, Peta White, Jacqui Peters, Shannon Sahlqvist, Jiani Ma, Michael Duncan, and Lisa M. Barnett

The concept of physical literacy (PL) has witnessed enormous popularity in recent years and has undergone substantial theoretical evolvement during the last 2 decades. However, the research field pertaining to PL has not yet initiated discussions around the challenges of climate change and the alignment with conceptualizations of planetary health. Therefore, we argue that the consideration of an “ecological domain” for individual physical activity, in the form of ecological awareness, would further evolve the concept. We illustrate how to potentially integrate adjustments within the most frequent PL definitions of the field (eg, those in Australia, Canada, England, Ireland, the United States, or by the International Physical Literacy Association) without questioning the entire integrity of these elaborate conceptualizations. An ecological domain of PL would not only interact with the postulated physical, cognitive, psychological/affective, and social domains of PL but also have important implications for the (re)design of interventions and practices in physical activity contexts. We call the scientific community, both on national and international scales, to intensify the discussions and initiate a research agenda involving an “ecological domain” of PL.

Open access

Assessing Support for Policy Actions With Co-Benefits for Climate Change and Physical Activity in Canada

Matthew J. Fagan, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Ananya Banerjee, Leah J. Ferguson, Eun-Young Lee, Norman O’Reilly, Ryan E. Rhodes, John C. Spence, Mark S. Tremblay, and Guy Faulkner

Background: Calls to action addressing the interconnections between physical (in)activity and the climate crisis are increasing. The current study aimed to investigate public support for policy actions that potentially have co-benefits for physical activity promotion and climate change mitigation. Methods: In 2023, a survey through the Angus Reid Forum was completed by 2507 adults living in Canada. Binary logistic regressions were conducted. Separate models were created to reflect support or opposition to the 8 included policy items. Several covariates were included in the models including age, gender, political orientation, physical activity levels, income, urbanicity climate anxiety, and attitudes surrounding physical activity and climate change. The data were weighted to reflect the gender, age, and regional composition of the country. Results: Most individuals living in Canada strongly or moderately supported all actions (ranging from 71% to 85%). Meeting the physical activity guidelines, higher self-reported income, and scoring high on personal experience of climate change were associated with higher odds of supporting the policy actions related to climate actions. Conclusions: Most adults living in Canada support policies that align with the recommended policy actions related to physical activity and climate change. National campaigns enhancing awareness and understanding of the bidirectional relationship between physical activity and climate change are warranted, and these should consider the consistent demographic differences (eg, gender, age, and political orientation) seen in public support for physical activity-related policies.

Free access

Sport Participation for Academic Success: Evidence From the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

Katherine B. Owen, Bridget C. Foley, Ben J. Smith, Karine E. Manera, Lucy Corbett, Michelle Lim, Philayrath Phongsavan, Pamela Qualter, Ding Ding, and Philip J. Clare

Background: We aimed to identify long-term patterns of sport participation (overall, team, and individual sport) from childhood into adolescence, and to examine the association between these patterns and academic outcomes. Methods: This cohort study used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children in wave 3 (4–5 y) to wave 9 (20–21 y). The participants were a nationally representative sample of 4241 children. We conducted latent class analyses to identify sport participation trajectories and assessed the association between these trajectories and academic outcomes. Results: Continued sport participation was associated with lower odds of being absent from school (OR = 0.44; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.26 to 0.74), better performance on attention (B = −0.010; 95% CIs, −0.019 to −0.002) and working memory (B = −0.013; 95% CIs, −0.023 to −0.003), higher numeracy (B = 20.21; 95% CIs, 14.56 to 25.86) and literacy scores (B = 9.42; 95% CIs, 2.82 to 16.02), higher end of school academic performance (B = 3.28; 95% CIs, 1.47 to 5.09), and higher odds of studying at university (OR = 1.78; 95% CIs, 1.32 to 2.40). Team sport participation was associated with reduced absenteeism, better performance on attention and working memory, and being awarded the Higher School Certificate. Whereas individual sport participation was associated with higher literacy scores and end of school academic performance. Conclusions: Team and individual sport participation both benefit academic outcomes, but differently. Given the decline in sport participation during adolescence, these findings highlight the need to develop educational policies to establish an environment that promotes sport participation, which in turn could improve academic outcomes.