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Open access

Celebrating the Professional Life of Professor Kevin D. Tipton (1961–2022)

Oliver C. Witard, Arny A. Ferrando, and Stuart M. Phillips

This invited editorial celebrates the distinguished professional life of Professor Kevin D. Tipton, who sadly passed away on January 9, 2022. Professor Tipton made an outstanding contribution to the scientific field of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism over an exceptional 30-year career. He dedicated his academic career to understanding the response of muscle protein metabolism to exercise and nutrition. The impact of his work is far-reaching with application to athletes in terms of promoting training adaptation, recovery, and performance, alongside clinical implications for injury management and healthy aging. Notable scientific contributions included the first in vivo human study to demonstrate the role of orally ingested essential amino acids in stimulating muscle protein synthesis during acute post-exercise recovery. This finding laid the foundation for future studies to interrogate the response of muscle protein synthesis to the ingestion of different protein types. Professor Tipton’s work also included investigating the maximally effective dose and timing (regarding exercise) of ingested protein for the stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. Kevin will be remembered fondly by academics, applied scientists, and students across the sport nutrition and exercise metabolism community as a leading researcher in the field, a critical thinker, and an inspirational teacher. His mission was to educate the next generation of exercise scientists by sharing his distinct wealth of knowledge accrued over three decades. Above all else, Kevin was kind, generous (with his time and knowledge), honest, and incredibly social. He was a unique character and will be greatly missed among our community but certainly never forgotten.

Open access

Dietary Supplements for Athletic Performance in Women: Beta-Alanine, Caffeine, and Nitrate

Molly J. Murphy, Blake R. Rushing, Susan J. Sumner, and Anthony C. Hackney

Beta-alanine, caffeine, and nitrate are dietary supplements generally recognized by the sport and exercise science community as evidence-based ergogenic performance aids. Evidence supporting the efficacy of these supplements, however, is greatly skewed due to research being conducted primarily in men. The physiological differences between men and women, most notably in sex hormones and menstrual cycle fluctuations, make generalizing male data to the female athlete inappropriate, and potentially harmful to women. This narrative review outlines the studies conducted in women regarding the efficacy of beta-alanine, caffeine, and nitrate supplementation for performance enhancement. Only nine studies on beta-alanine, 15 on caffeine, and 10 on nitrate in healthy women under the age of 40 years conducted in normoxia conditions were identified as relevant to this research question. Evidence suggests that beta-alanine may lower the rate of perceived exertion and extend training bouts in women, leading to greater functional adaptations. Studies of caffeine in women suggest the physiological responder status and caffeine habituation may contribute to caffeine’s efficacy, with a potential plateau in the dose–response relationship of performance enhancement. Nitrate appears to vary in influence based on activity type and primary muscle group examined. However, the results summarized in the limited literature for each of these three supplements provide no consensus on dosage, timing, or efficacy for women. Furthermore, the literature lacks considerations for hormonal status and its role in metabolism. This gap in sex-based knowledge necessitates further research on these ergogenic supplements in women with greater considerations for the effects of hormonal status.

Open access

Erratum: Hurst, Saunders, & Coleman (2020)

James A. Betts

Open access

Methodology Review: A Protocol to Audit the Representation of Female Athletes in Sports Science and Sports Medicine Research

Ella S. Smith, Alannah K.A. McKay, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Rachel Harris, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Trent Stellingwerff, and Louise M. Burke

Female-specific research on sports science and sports medicine (SSSM) fails to mirror the increase in participation and popularity of women’s sport. Females have historically been excluded from SSSM research, particularly because their physiological intricacy necessitates more complex study designs, longer research times, and additional costs. Consequently, most SSSM practices are based on research with men, despite potential problems in translation to females due to sexual dimorphism in biological and phenotypical parameters as well as differences in event characteristics (e.g., race distances/durations). Recognition that erroneous extrapolations may hamper the efforts of females to maximize their athletic potential has created an impetus to acknowledge and readdress the sex disparity in SSSM research. To direct the priorities for future research, it is prudent to first develop a comprehensive understanding of the gaps in current knowledge by systematically “auditing” the literature. By conducting audits of the literature to highlight underdeveloped topics or identify potential problems with the quality of research, this information can then be used to expediently direct new research activities. This paper therefore presents a standardized audit methodology to establish the representation of female athletes in subdisciplines of existing SSSM research, including a template for reporting the results of key metrics. This standardized audit process will enable comparisons over time and between research subdisciplines. This working guide provides an important step toward achieving sex equity across SSSM research, with the eventual goal of providing evidence-based recommendations specific to the female athlete.

Open access

Abstracts From the 2021 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference

Open access

Acute Ingestion of Ketone Monoesters and Precursors Do Not Enhance Endurance Exercise Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Emma Brooks, Gilles Lamothe, Taniya S. Nagpal, Pascal Imbeault, Kristi Adamo, Jameel Kara, and Éric Doucet

There has been much consideration over whether exogenous ketone bodies have the capacity to enhance exercise performance through mechanisms such as altered substrate metabolism, accelerated recovery, or neurocognitive improvements. This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of both ketone precursors and monoesters on endurance exercise performance. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials investigating endurance performance outcomes in response to ingestion of a ketone supplement compared to a nutritive or nonnutritive control in humans. A meta-analysis was performed to determine the standardized mean difference between interventions using a random-effects model. Hedge’s g and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. The search yielded 569 articles, of which eight were included in this review (80 participants; 77 men and three women). When comparing endurance performance among all studies, no significant differences were found between ketone and control trials (Hedges g = 0.136; 95% CI [−0.195, 0.467]; p = .419). Subanalyses based on type of endurance tests showed no significant differences in time to exhaustion (Hedge’s g = −0.002; 95% CI [−0.312, 0.308]; p = .989) or time trial (Hedge’s g = 0.057; 95% CI [−0.282, 0.395]; p = .744) values. Based on these findings, exogenous ketone precursors and monoesters do not exert significant improvements on endurance exercise performance. While all studies reported an increase in blood ketone concentrations after ingestion, ketone monoesters appear to be more effective at raising concentrations than precursors.

Free access

Erratum: Fensham et al. (2021)

Open access

Erratum: Kirk, Langan-Evans, & Morton (2020)

Open access

Sustained Exposure to High Carbohydrate Availability Does Not Influence Iron-Regulatory Responses in Elite Endurance Athletes

Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welveart, Ida A. Heikura, Avish P. Sharma, Jamie Whitfield, Megan L. Ross, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers, and Louise M. Burke

This study implemented a 2-week high carbohydrate (CHO) diet intended to maximize CHO oxidation rates and examined the iron-regulatory response to a 26-km race walking effort. Twenty international-level, male race walkers were assigned to either a novel high CHO diet (MAX = 10 g/kg body mass CHO daily) inclusive of gut-training strategies, or a moderate CHO control diet (CON = 6 g/kg body mass CHO daily) for a 2-week training period. The athletes completed a 26-km race walking test protocol before and after the dietary intervention. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post-, and 3 hr postexercise and measured for serum ferritin, interleukin-6, and hepcidin-25 concentrations. Similar decreases in serum ferritin (17–23%) occurred postintervention in MAX and CON. At the baseline, CON had a greater postexercise increase in interleukin-6 levels after 26 km of walking (20.1-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 35.7]) compared with MAX (10.2-fold, 95% CI [3.7, 18.7]). A similar finding was evident for hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise (CON = 10.8-fold, 95% CI [4.8, 21.2]; MAX = 8.8-fold, 95% CI [3.9, 16.4]). Postintervention, there were no substantial differences in the interleukin-6 response (CON = 13.6-fold, 95% CI [9.2, 20.5]; MAX = 11.2-fold, 95% CI [6.5, 21.3]) or hepcidin levels (CON = 7.1-fold, 95% CI [2.1, 15.4]; MAX = 6.3-fold, 95% CI [1.8, 14.6]) between the dietary groups. Higher resting serum ferritin (p = .004) and hotter trial ambient temperatures (p = .014) were associated with greater hepcidin levels 3 hr postexercise. Very high CHO diets employed by endurance athletes to increase CHO oxidation have little impact on iron regulation in elite athletes. It appears that variations in serum ferritin concentration and ambient temperature, rather than dietary CHO, are associated with increased hepcidin concentrations 3 hr postexercise.

Open access

Acknowledgments