Background: Our study investigated the effect of elite sport on physical activity (PA) practice in the general population. Methods: Structured Boolean searches were conducted across 5 electronic databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo) from January 2000 to August 2021. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if the effects of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, and elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population were measured. Results: We identified 12,563 articles and included 36 articles. Most studies investigated the effect of hosting elite sport events (n = 27), followed by elite sport success (n = 16) and elite sport role modeling (n = 3). Most studies did not observe a positive effect of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, or elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population. No evidence of a lagged effect of elite sport was observed. No evidence of elite sport effects was observed according to age range and geographical scale. Conclusion: There is no evidence supporting the effect of elite sport in increasing PA or sport participation in the general population. Decision makers and policymakers should be aware of this and invest in strategies such as those recommended by the World Health Organization.
Alexis Lion, Anne Vuillemin, Florian Léon, Charles Delagardelle, and Aurélie van Hoye
Joey Murphy, Karen Milton, Matthew Mclaughlin, Trevor Shilton, Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Lindsey J. Reece, Jacqueline L. Mair, Artur Direito, Katharina E. Kariippanon, Kelly J. Mackenzie, Myrto F. Mavilidi, Erin M. Shellington, Masamitsu Kamada, Leonie Heron, Edtna Jauregui, Chalchisa Abdeta, Ilaria Pina, Ryan Pinto, and Rachel Sutherland
Background: There is limited understanding of the challenges experienced and supports required to aid effective advocacy of the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA). The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges experienced and supports needed to advocate for the GAPPA across countries of different income levels. Methods: Stakeholders working in an area related to the promotion of physical activity were invited to complete an online survey. The survey assessed current awareness and engagement with the GAPPA, factors related to advocacy, and the perceived challenges and supports related to advocacy for implementation of the GAPPA. Closed questions were analyzed in SPSS, with a Pearson’s chi-square test used to assess differences between country income level. Open questions were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: Participants (n = 518) from 81 countries completed the survey. Significant differences were observed between country income level for awareness of the GAPPA and perceived country engagement with the GAPPA. Challenges related to advocacy included a lack of support and engagement, resources, priority, awareness, advocacy education and training, accessibility, and local application. Supports needed for future advocacy included guidance and support, cooperation and alliance, advocacy education and training, and advocacy resources. Conclusions: Although stakeholders from different country income levels experience similar advocacy challenges and required supports, how countries experience these can be distinct. This research has highlighted some specific ways in which those involved in the promotion of physical activity can be supported to scale up advocacy for the GAPPA. When implementing such supports, consideration of regional, geographic, and cultural barriers and opportunities is important to ensure they are effective and equitable.
Natália Mendes Guardieiro, Gabriel Barreto, Felipe Miguel Marticorena, Tamires Nunes Oliveira, Luana Farias de Oliveira, Ana Lucia de Sá Pinto, Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado, Bryan Saunders, and Bruno Gualano
Purpose: Investigate whether a cloth facemask could affect physiological and perceptual responses to exercise at distinct exercise intensities in untrained individuals. Methods: Healthy participants (n = 35; 17 men, age 30  y, and 18 women, age 28  y) underwent a progressive square wave test at 4 intensities: (1) 80% of ventilatory anaerobic threshold; (2) ventilatory anaerobic threshold; (3) respiratory compensation point; and (4) exercise peak (Peak) to exhaustion, 5-minute stages, with or without a triple-layered cloth facemask (Mask or No-Mask). Several physiological and perceptual measures were analyzed. Results: Mask reduced inspiratory capacity at all exercise intensities (P < .0001). Mask reduced respiratory frequency (P = .001) at Peak (−8.3 breaths·min−1; 95% confidence interval [CI], −5.8 to −10.8), respiratory compensation point (−6.9 breaths·min−1; 95% CI, −4.6 to −9.2), and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (−6.5 breaths·min−1; 95% CI, −4.1 to −8.8), but not at Baseline or 80% of ventilatory anaerobic threshold. Mask reduced tidal volume (P < .0001) only at respiratory compensation point (−0.5 L; 95% CI, −0.3 to −0.6) and Peak (−0.8 L; 95% CI, −0.6 to −0.9). Shallow breathing index was increased with Mask only at Peak (11.3; 95% CI, 7.5 to 15.1). Mask did not change HR, lactate, ratings of perceived exertion, blood pressure, or oxygen saturation. Conclusions: A cloth facemask reduced time to exhaustion but had no major impact on cardiorespiratory parameters and had a slight but clinically meaningless impact on respiratory variables at higher intensities. Moderate to heavy activity is safe and tolerable for healthy individuals while wearing a cloth facemask. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04887714.
Zsófia Pálya, Bálint Petró, and Rita M. Kiss
Background: Balancing performance can be affected by regular and high-level athletic training, which has not been fully explored in synchronized ice skaters. This study aimed to analyze the dynamic balancing performance by assessing the principal and compensatory movements performed during the sudden provocation tests and evaluating the parameters that characterize the platform’s motion. Method: Twelve young female synchronized ice skaters and 12 female age-matched controls participated. Sudden provocation tests were completed three times in bipedal stance and in single-leg stances, and sport-specific fatigue session was inserted between the repetitions. Results: Significantly more time was necessary to recover balance for both groups after the fatiguing sessions (p < .05). Interestingly, skaters performed less effectively in the simplest condition (bipedal stance) than the control group (p < .05). The principal component analysis showed that the first principal movement was the same for both groups. The skater group used the upper body and arms more often to compensate, while the control group’s recovery strategy consisted mainly of abduction of the elevated leg. The damping ratio and the relative variance of the first principal movement showed a negative correlation (p < .05), suggesting that those with superior balancing effectiveness recruited more compensatory movements.
Laetitia Jeancolas, Lauriane Rat-Fischer, J. Kevin O’Regan, and Jacqueline Fagard
Infants start to use a spoon for self-feeding at the end of the first year of life, but usually do not use unfamiliar tools to solve problems before the age of 2 years. We investigated to what extent 18-month-old infants who are familiar with using a spoon for self-feeding are able to generalize this tool-use ability to retrieve a distant object. We tested 46 infants with different retrieval tasks, varying the tool (rake or spoon) and the target (toy or food). The tasks were presented in a priori descending order of difficulty: rake–toy condition, then either spoon–toy or rake–food, and finally spoon–food. Then, the same conditions were presented in reverse order to assess the transfer abilities from the easiest condition to the most difficult retrieval task. Spontaneously, 18-month-old infants performed the retrieval tasks better with the familiar tool, the easiest task being when the spoon was associated with food. Moreover, the transfer results show that being able to use a familiar tool in an unusual context seems necessary and sufficient for subsequent transfer to an unfamiliar tool in the unusual context, and that early and repetitive training of self-feeding with a spoon plays a positive role in later tool use.
Maarten A. Immink
Janelle Joseph, Bahar Tajrobehkar, Gabriela Estrada, and Zeana Hamdonah
Background: This scoping literature review examines: What literature exists about the sport and physical activity experiences of racialized cis and trans women, adolescents, and girls in Canada? Methods: English language peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and gray literature published January 1, 2000, up to May 31, 2020, were examined. The databases used were SPORTDiscus via EBSCO, Sociological Abstracts, Sport Medicine and Education Index, and Google Scholar. The 42 studies and 15 gray literatures found included 1430 participants explicitly specified as racialized women/girl participants. Results: There was a paucity of literature on the topic overall with none (n = 0) focused on experiences of racialized trans women. The limited research notes some successful programs that address racialized women’s needs. However, the research also shows widespread experiences of discrimination against women based on racial group and language and limited access to culturally relevant or welcoming sporting opportunities, such as women-only programs and spaces. Conclusions: Much more research should be done to disaggregate “immigrants” into specific racial and ethnic groups, attend to intersectional identities and barriers, understand a wide range of involvement (eg, including coaching, high performance sport, recreation, exercise, university sport, mentorship programs), document racism and White privilege, and describe the joys of participation in sport for racialized women.
Hannah Bennett, Robert Owens, and Tanya Prewitt-White
Kadia Saint-Onge, Paquito Bernard, Célia Kingsbury, and Janie Houle
Few studies have focused on older public housing tenants’ perceptions of physical activity. Greater understanding of how they define, appreciate, and engage in physical activity could lead to better targeted promotion and reduced health inequalities for this subgroup of the population. We conducted 26 walk-along interviews with older public housing tenants in Montreal (Canada). Tenants were aged 60–93 years and lived in either one of three study sites including a commercial, a residential, and a mixed land-use area. Physical activity was described as a multidimensional construct through six interdependent dimensions: physiological, emotional, interpersonal, occupational, intellectual, and existential. Participants perceived physical activity as having potential for both well-being and ill-being. Perceptions of physical activity were a function of age, physical capacity, gender, culture, revenue, and relation to community. These results support using a life-course perspective and a broader definition in promoting physical activity to older public housing tenants.