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Open access

Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, Debra J. Rose, Diane E. Whaley, Philip D. Chilibeck, and Samuel R. Nyman

Open access

Kerstin Bach, Atle Kongsvold, Hilde Bårdstu, Ellen Marie Bardal, Håkon S. Kjærnli, Sverre Herland, Aleksej Logacjov, and Paul Jarle Mork

Introduction: Accelerometer-based measurements of physical activity types are commonly used to replace self-reports. To advance the field, it is desirable that such measurements allow accurate detection of key daily physical activity types. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a machine learning classifier for detecting sitting, standing, lying, walking, running, and cycling based on a dual versus single accelerometer setups during free-living. Methods: Twenty-two adults (mean age [SD, range] 38.7 [14.4, 25–68] years) were wearing two Axivity AX3 accelerometers positioned on the low back and thigh along with a GoPro camera positioned on the chest to record lower body movements during free-living. The labeled videos were used as ground truth for training an eXtreme Gradient Boosting classifier using window lengths of 1, 3, and 5 s. Performance of the classifier was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Total recording time was ∼38 hr. Based on 5-s windowing, the overall accuracy was 96% for the dual accelerometer setup and 93% and 84% for the single thigh and back accelerometer setups, respectively. The decreased accuracy for the single accelerometer setup was due to a poor precision in detecting lying based on the thigh accelerometer recording (77%) and standing based on the back accelerometer recording (64%). Conclusion: Key daily physical activity types can be accurately detected during free-living based on dual accelerometer recording, using an eXtreme Gradient Boosting classifier. The overall accuracy decreases marginally when predictions are based on single thigh accelerometer recording, but detection of lying is poor.

Full access

Jaquelini Betta Canever, Ana Lúcia Danielewicz, Amanda Aparecida Oliveira Leopoldino, Maruí Weber Corseuil, and Núbia Carelli Pereira de Avelar

Fear of falling and history of falls are frequent situations in older adults, which can be aggravated by sedentary behavior (SB). The objective was to establish SB cutoff values which discriminate falls and fear of falling in older adults and verify the association between these conditions. This was a cross-sectional study including 308 community-dwelling older adults. The SB was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The outcomes were history of falling in the last 12 months and fear of falling (higher or equal than 23 points in Falls Efficacy Scale International—Brazil). The cutoff points found were >4.14 (area under curve = 0.60, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] [0.54, 0.65]) and >3.90 hr per day (area under curve = 0.59, 95% CI [0.53, 0.64]) for fear of falling and history of falls, respectively. Older adults with SB had 1.71 (95% CI [1.03, 2.84]) and 1.75 (95% CI [1.06, 2.89]) greater odds of having greater fear of falling and suffering falls, respectively.

Open access

Areekul Amornsriwatanakul, Narongsak Noosorn, Kittipong Poonchob, Rung Wongwat, Somkiat Sornprasit, Phataraphon Markmee, Michael Rosenberg, and Karen Milton

Background: This study aimed to determine current practice in physical activity (PA) promotion in Thai schools, explore barriers and facilitators to PA promotion within the school setting, and identify strategies to support schools’ future practice. Methods: A qualitative study design was applied comprising document analysis, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and onsite observations. The focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with 144 informants, purposively recruited through 24 schools in 4 regions across Thailand. Inductive content analysis was used. Results: Most schools were promoting PA in the absence of written policies, and without an accurate understanding of PA. Nonalignment of school performance indicators and policies, concerns about children’s academic performance, and lack of budget were raised as barriers to PA promotion, whereas strong partnerships with multiple local stakeholders facilitated school-based PA promotion. Mandated government PA policies and more information support were suggested as strategies to enhance schools’ future practices. Conclusions: For PA promotion to be successful in the school setting, significant challenges will need to be addressed. Results from this study help the government and concerned stakeholders to better understand the situation at the school level, and further strive for achieving the target PA levels specified in the National PA Plan.

Open access

Catherine E. Draper, Takana M. Silubonde, Gudani Mukoma, and Esther M.F. van Sluijs

Background: South Africa launched 24-hour movement guidelines for birth to 5 years in 2018. Perceptions of these guidelines were assessed as part of the dissemination process with community-based organizations in 2019. Methods: Fifteen dissemination workshops were held with community-based organization representatives and a range of stakeholders. Discussions were held with workshop attendees (n = 281) to obtain qualitative feedback on the guidelines and workshop. Six follow-up focus groups (n = 28) were conducted to obtain additional feedback on the guidelines and their dissemination. Discussions and focus groups were thematically analyzed. Results: Participants recognized the importance of the guidelines for the health and development of young South African children. Participants’ perceptions of the guidelines were consistently positive. The participants acknowledged the alignment of the guidelines with other South African programs and initiatives, and that they addressed gaps. Screen time and sleep were identified as the behaviors needing particular attention among young South African children. The negative impact of COVID-19 on young children’s movement behaviors was acknowledged, especially regarding screen time. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence of stakeholders’ positive perceptions of the South African guidelines and support the dissemination and implementation of these guidelines for the promotion of early childhood health and development in South Africa.

Open access

Andrew Powell

Increasing the physical activity (PA) levels of inactive older adults to promote healthy aging and to reduce preventable health conditions is a public health priority. However, there remains uncertainty on what constitutes the most important components and characteristics of effective PA interventions for older adults, and previous research has largely focused on the cognitive and behavioral strategies they adopt to increase uptake and adherence to PA. This narrative review puts forward the novel idea, with supporting evidence, that the strength, quality, and collaborative nature of the professional–client relationship, a concept drawn from the field of psychotherapy and known as therapeutic alliance, may be a vital and foundational element of effective PA interventions. This article will offer a new understanding, and a new direction of research to aid the future conceptualization, design, and development of interventions that aim to increase the PA levels of older adults.

Open access

Rodrigo Reis, Ruth F. Hunter, Leandro Garcia, and Deborah Salvo

We are experiencing a planetary tipping point with global warming, environmental degradation, and losses in biodiversity. The burdens of these changes fall disproportionately on poor and marginalized populations. Physical activity promotion strategies need to be aligned with climate action commitments, incorporating the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios in physical activity action plans. The promotion strategies must consider equity a core value and promote physical activity to the most vulnerable populations so that they are protected from the ill-health impacts of a changing climate.