The purpose of this study was to validate a new geometric solids model, developed to address the lack of female-specific models for body segment inertial parameter estimation. A second aim was to determine the effect of reducing the number of geometric solids used to model the limb segments on model accuracy. The full model comprised 56 geometric solids, the reduced model comprised 31, and the basic model comprised 16. Predicted whole-body inertial parameters were compared with direct measurements (reaction board, scales), and predicted segmental parameters with those estimated from whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry scans for 28 females. The percentage root mean square error (%RMSE) for whole-body volume was <2.5% for all models and 1.9% for the full model. The %RMSE for whole-body center of mass location was <3.2% for all models. The %RMSE whole-body mass was <3.3% for the full model. The RMSE for segment masses was <0.5 kg (<0.5%) for all segments; Bland-Altman analysis showed the full and reduced models could adequately model thigh, forearm, foot, and hand segments, but the full model was required for the trunk segment. The proposed model was able to accurately predict body segment inertial parameters for females; more geometric solids are required to more accurately model the trunk.
Samantha L. Winter, Sarah M. Forrest, Joanne Wallace, and John H. Challis
John D. McCamley, Eric L. Cutler, Kendra K. Schmid, Shane R. Wurdeman, Jason M. Johanning, Iraklis I. Pipinos, and Sara A. Myers
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) experience significant leg dysfunction. The effects of PAD on gait include shortened steps, slower walking velocity, and altered gait kinematics and kinetics, which may confound joint torques and power measurements. Spatiotemporal parameters and joint torques and powers were calculated and compared between 20 patients with PAD and 20 healthy controls using independent t tests. Separate analysis of covariance models were used to evaluate group differences after independently adjusting for gait velocity, stride length, and step width. Compared with healthy controls, patients with PAD exhibited reduced peak extensor and flexor torques at the knee and hip. After adjusting for all covariates combined, differences between groups remained for ankle power generation in late stance and knee flexor torque. Reduced walking velocity observed in subjects affected by PAD was closely connected with reductions in joint torques and powers during gait. Gait differences remained at the knee and ankle after adjusting for the combined effect of spatiotemporal parameters. Improving muscle function through exercise or with the use of assistive devices needs to be a key tool in the development of interventions that aim to enhance the ability of PAD patients to restore spatiotemporal gait parameters.
Matthew S. Tenan, Andrew J. Tweedell, and Courtney A. Haynes
Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel
This article is focused on how combinations of motivational attributes and motivational climates support social and pedagogical inclusion in physical education among children with disabilities. Theoretically, the authors integrate tenets from achievement-goal theory and self-determination theory. To capture the motivational complexity underlying children’s experiences of inclusion in physical education, they use a 2-step fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis. The analyses of contextual conditions yielded 2 sufficient inclusion-supportive climates, namely a physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate or a physical inclusive, autonomy-supportive, and low performance-oriented climate. The configurations of motivational attributes in the inclusion-supportive climates indicated 4 sufficient pathways to social and pedagogical inclusion. The path with the largest coverage of children was in the physically inclusive and mastery-oriented climate and represented children who were task and ego oriented and low on amotivation and experienced satisfaction of the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Daniel M. Corcos and Mark L. Latash
Mitch Abrams and Michelle L. Bartlett
The #MeToo movement has brought long needed attention to the epidemic of sexual assault and sexual violence. In the world of sports, the need to prevent and address such acts requires individuals with training in clinical, forensic and sport psychology. These professionals must have particular understanding of the dynamics of sexual violence within the athletic and sport culture. This paper serves to highlight context-specific approaches to pertinent identification and treatment issues. An overview of sexual abuse victim and perpetrator identification will be offered. In addition to the introduction of risk assessment and recommendation of comprehensive prevention programming, treatment needs in the athletic context will be explored. Group-level interventions currently being utilized will be reviewed, recommended topic areas to be covered in protocols will be enumerated and suggestions for systemic and cultural change in the sport domain will be offered.