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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

Despite a growing emphasis on self-compassion in sport, little research has focused exclusively on men athletes. The purpose of this research was to explore the interaction of self-compassion and diverse versions of masculinity on the psychosocial well-being of men athletes. The authors sampled 172 men athletes (M age = 22.8 yr) from a variety of sports, using descriptive methodology with self-report questionnaires. Self-compassion was related to most variables (e.g., psychological well-being, fear of negative evaluation, state self-criticism, internalized shame, reactions to a hypothetical sport-specific scenario) in hypothesized directions and predicted unique variance beyond self-esteem across most of those variables, as well as moderated relationships between masculinity and both autonomy and attitudes toward gay men. In addition, self-compassion was differentially related to inclusive and hegemonic masculinity. Our findings support self-compassion as a promising resource for men athletes to buffer emotionally difficult sport experiences.

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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

Background: To investigate the geographical distribution of physical activity (PA) prevalence among adults aged 15–64 years old across Iran provinces using geographic maps. Methods: Data from 4 consecutive national surveys conducted between 2007 and 2010 were pooled to determine the geographical distribution. Prevalence of low PA with 95% confidence interval was estimated by sociodemographic subpopulations over provinces using complex survey design. Results: In total, 119,560 participants (49.9% females) were included in the analyses. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.5 (14.3) years. The prevalence of the low PA in the pooled 2007–2010 was 35.8% (95% confidence interval, 34.1–37.6). The 3 provinces with the highest prevalence of low PA were Sistan and Baluchestan, Yazd, and Hormozgan. The results of hot spot analysis showed that the Kerman province was a hot spot, and Ilam, Kermanshah, Hamedan, and Markazi were cold spots for low PA. Ilam, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Mazandaran had the highest total PA volume (metabolic equivalent minutes per week). Hot spot analysis showed that Ilam and Khuzestan provinces were hot spots for the total PA volume. Conclusions: The regions with low and high PA are predominately situated in the near center/southeast and west, respectively.

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Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen and Erlingur Jóhannsson

Introduction: Sleep is often quantified using self-report or actigraphy. Self-report is practical and less technically challenging, but prone to bias. We sought to determine whether these methods have comparable sensitivity to measure longitudinal changes in adolescent bedtimes. Methods: We measured one week of free-living sleep with wrist actigraphy and usual bedtime on school nights and non-school nights with self-report questionnaire in 144 students at 15 y and 17 y. Results: Self-reported and actigraphy-measured bedtimes were correlated with one another at 15 y and 17 y (p < .001), but reported bedtime was consistently earlier (>30 minutes, p < .001) and with wide inter-method confidence intervals (> ±106 minutes). Mean inter-method discrepancy did not differ on school nights at 15 y and 17 y but was greater at 17 y on non-school nights (p = .002). Inter-method discrepancy at 15 y was not correlated to that at 17 y. Mean change in self-reported school night bedtime from 15 y to 17 y did not differ from that by actigraphy, but self-reported bedtime changed less on non-school nights (p = .002). Two-year changes in self-reported bedtime did not correlate with changes measured by actigraphy. Conclusions: Although methods were correlated, consistently earlier self-reported bedtime suggests report-bias. More varied non-school night bedtimes challenge the accuracy of self-report and actigraphy, reducing sensitivity to change. On school nights, the methods did not differ in group-level sensitivity to changes in bedtime. However, lack of correlation between bedtime changes by each method suggests sensitivity to individual-level change was different. Methodological differences in sensitivity to individual- and group-level change should be considered in longitudinal studies of adolescent sleep patterns.

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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) results in a global decrease in information processing, ultimately resulting in dysfunction executing motor-cognitive tasks. Motor-cognitive impairments contribute to postural instability, often leading to falls and decreased physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a multimodal training (MMT) versus single-modal (SMT) training on motor symptoms, fall frequency, and physical activity in patients with PD classified as fallers. Methods: Individuals with PD were randomized into SMT (n = 11) or MMT (n = 10) and completed training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The SMT completed gait and cognitive training separately, whereas MMT completed gait and cognitive training simultaneously during each 45-minute session. Physical activity, 30-day fall frequency, and PD motor symptoms were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and during a 4-week follow-up. Results: Both groups exhibited significant (P < .05) improvements in clinical ratings of motor function, as symptoms improved by 8% and 15% for SMT and MMT, respectively. Physical activity significantly increased (P < .05) for both groups from baseline (mean steps 4942 [4415]) to posttreatment (mean steps 5914 [5425]). The MMT resulted in a significant 60% reduction in falls. Conclusions: Although SMT and MMT approaches are both effective in improving physical activity and motor symptoms of PD, only MMT reduced fall frequency after the intervention.

Open access

Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is known to benefit cognition among older adults, but the impact of active travel is unclear. To explore this relationship, data from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 2,702; mean age = 70) were retrieved on the self-reported frequency and duration of active travel (walking/cycling for transport, >20 min), LTPA engagement (e.g., sport), and three cognitive outcomes. Four groups were created according to physical activity guidelines (600 metabolic equivalent of task/week): inactive (n = 1,790), active travelers (n = 210), engaging in LTPA (n = 579), and engaging in both (n = 123). Analysis of covariance (and follow-up comparisons) revealed a significant main effect for each cognition variable, after adjusting for the covariates, indicating that those engaging in LTPA performed the best. Although correlational, these findings suggest that LTPA engagement may be important for cognition among older adults, but active travel did not provide added benefit.

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Kelly Cornett, Katherine Bray-Simons, Heather M. Devlin, Sunil Iyengar, Patricia Moore Shaffer and Janet E. Fulton

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Artur Direito, Joseph J. Murphy, Matthew Mclaughlin, Jacqueline Mair, Kelly Mackenzie, Masamitsu Kamada, Rachel Sutherland, Shannon Montgomery, Trevor Shilton and on behalf of the ISPAH Early Career Network

Increasing population levels of physical activity (PA) can assist in achieving the United Nations sustainable development goals, benefiting multiple sectors and contributing to global prosperity. Practices and policies to increase PA levels exist at the subnational, national, and international levels. In 2018, the World Health Organization launched the first Global Action Plan on Physical Activity (GAPPA). The GAPPA provides guidance through a framework of effective and feasible policy actions for increasing PA, and requires engagement and advocacy from a wide spectrum of stakeholders for successful implementation of the proposed actions. Early career professionals, including researchers, practitioners, and policymakers, can play a major role with helping “all people being regularly active” by contributing to 4 overarching areas: (1) generation—of evidence, (2) dissemination—of key messages and evidence, (3) implementation—of the evidence-based actions proposed in the GAPPA, and (4) contributing to advocacy for robust national action plans on PA. The contribution of early career professionals can be achieved through 5 pathways: (1) research, (2) workplace/practice, (3) business, (4) policy, and (5) professional and public opinion. Recommendations of how early career professionals can contribute to the generation, dissemination, and implementation of the evidence and actions proposed by the GAPPA are provided.

Open access

Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton

Persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are often physically inactive, despite associated benefits. This study explored the barriers, facilitators, and preferences for exercise among persons living with MCI/early dementia. The authors conducted 2 focus groups among persons living with MCI/early dementia (n = 4, 6 participants) and 2 focus groups among care partners (n = 3, 4 participants). The transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis, guided by the social-ecological model. Three themes emerged, reinforcing motivation to exercise, managing changes to cognitive and physical health, and variable perceptions of dementia, each with influences from individual, care partner, and community levels. Low intrinsic motivation, poor physical/cognitive health, and stigma restricted the exercise among persons living with MCI/early dementia. The care partners motivated their partners and provided company and transportation to exercise. People with MCI/early dementia also indicated poor access to exercise providers and exercise opportunities that met their needs and preferences was a barrier to exercise participation. Knowledge translation research should develop exercise interventions at the individual, social, and community levels.

Open access

Jairo H. Migueles, Alex V. Rowlands, Florian Huber, Séverine Sabia and Vincent T. van Hees

Recent technological advances have transformed the research on physical activity initially based on questionnaire data to the most recent objective data from accelerometers. The shift to availability of raw accelerations has increased measurement accuracy, transparency, and the potential for data harmonization. However, it has also shifted the need for considerable processing expertise to the researcher. Many users do not have this expertise. The R package GGIR has been made available to all as a tool to convermulti-day high resolution raw accelerometer data from wearable movement sensors into meaningful evidence-based outcomes and insightful reports for the study of human daily physical activity and sleep. This paper aims to provide a one-stop overview of GGIR package, the papers underpinning the theory of GGIR, and how research contributes to the continued growth of the GGIR package. The package includes a range of literature-supported methods to clean the data and provide day-by-day, as well as full recording, weekly, weekend, and weekday estimates of physical activity and sleep parameters. In addition, the package also comes with a shell function that enables the user to process a set of input files and produce csv summary reports with a single function call, ideal for users less proficient in R. GGIR has been used in over 90 peer-reviewed scientific publications to date. The evolution of GGIR over time and widespread use across a range of research areas highlights the importance of open source software development for the research community and advancing methods in physical behavior research.