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Open access

Karel Frömel, Josef Mitáš, and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background: This study aimed to present step-determined physical activity trends in adolescents with different activity levels over a period of 10 years. Methods: Pedometers were used to monitor weekly physical activity in 1855 boys and 2648 girls aged 15–19 years recruited from 155 schools in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2018. Trends for average steps/day and percent of accumulating various levels of steps/day (<10,000, 10,000–13,000, and >13,000 steps/d) were analyzed by sex. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in average steps/day between 2009–2010 and 2017–2018 in boys from 12,355 (3936) steps/d to 10,054 (3730) steps/d and girls from 11,501 (3278) steps/d to 10,216 (3288) steps/d. The percent accumulating <10,000 steps/d increased by 21% in boys and 12% in girls. The percent achieving >13,000 steps/d decreased by 17% in boys and 10% in girls. Conclusions: Objectively collected evidence indicates an overall decrease in Czech adolescents’ steps/day over a 10-year period concurrent with an increase in the percent of boys and girls accumulating <10,000 steps/d. These trends are concerning as they portend a decline in physical activity as adolescents transition to adulthood and continue to age, which also may have major health implications.

Open access

Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne

This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.

Open access

Markus Joseph Duncan, Negin Alivia Riazi, Guy Faulkner, Jenna Diane Gilchrist, Scott Thomas Leatherdale, and Karen Allison Patte

Background: Comprehensive, prospective, longitudinal data are lacking on the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on adolescents’ movement behaviors (moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA], sleep, recreational screen use, and strengthening exercises). The purpose was to compare movement behavior changes among adolescents affected by the pandemic with controls. Methods: Survey data from 10,659 students at 82 Canadian secondary schools (aged 12–19 y) during the 2018–2019 and 2019–2020 school years were analyzed. One-year change in time spent in movement behaviors and likelihood of meeting Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines was compared between preoutbreak controls (October 2019–March 2020) and early outbreak respondents (May–July 2020) after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results: Compared with controls, the early outbreak group reported a greater decrease in time spent in MVPA and greater increases in time spent in sleep and recreational screen use. The early outbreak group was less likely to meet MVPA and recreational screen time guidelines but more likely to meet guidelines for strengthening exercises and sleep duration. Conclusions: Findings for MVPA and screen time changes were in the same direction as retrospective reports from children and youth samples. Sleep adherence may have improved due to no longer having to commute to school. Strengthening exercises may represent physical activity that is easier to do in the home with minimal equipment leading to improved adherence during restrictions.

Open access

Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers

Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.

Full access

Kelley Strohacker, Lindsay P. Toth, Lucas F. Sheridan, and Scott E. Crouter

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and accelerometer-based devices can be used concurrently to better understand dimensions of physical activity. This study presents procedures for analyzing data derived from both methods to examine exercise-related walking and running, as well as determine evidence for alignment between these methods. The participants (N = 29) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ and completed four EMA surveys/day across 2 weeks to report exercise (mode and duration). GT3X+ counts per 10 s were processed using the Crouter two-regression model to identify periods of walking/running (coefficient of variation in activity counts ≤10% and >0%). Two reviewers visually inspected Crouter two-regression model data and recorded durations of walking/running in time blocks corresponding to EMA reports of exercise. The data were classified as “aligned” if the duration of walking/running between methods were within 20% of one another. Frequency analyses determined the proportion of aligned versus nonaligned exercise durations. Reviewer reliability was examined by calculating interobserver agreement (classification of aligned vs. nonaligned) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; duration based on coefficient of variation). Of the 139 self-reported bouts of walking and running exercise, 25% were classified as aligned with the Crouter two-regression model coefficient of variation. Initial interobserver agreement was 91, and ICCs across data classified as aligned (ICC = .992) and nonaligned (ICC = .960) were excellent. These novel procedures offer a means of isolating exercise-related physical activity for further analysis. Due to the inability to align evidence in most cases, we discuss key considerations for optimizing EMA survey questions, choice in accelerometer-based device, and future directions for visual analysis procedures.

Open access

Kathryn R. Hesketh, Soren Brage, Hazel M. Inskip, Sarah R. Crozier, Keith M. Godfrey, Nicholas C. Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, and Esther M.F. Van Sluijs

Background: To explore activity behaviors at school entry, we describe temporal/demographic associations with accelerometer-measured physical activity in a population-based sample of British 6-year-olds, and examine change from ages 4 to 6. Methods: A total of 712 six-year-olds (308 at both ages) wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≥3 (mean 6.0) days. We derived minutes per day sedentary (<20 cpm) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥460 cpm), also segmented across mornings (06:00 AM to 09:00 AM), school (09:00 AM to 3:00 PM), and evenings (3:00 PM to 11:00 PM). Using mixed effects linear regression, we analyzed associations between temporal/demographic factors and children’s activity intensities at age 6, and change between ages 4 and 6. Results: Six-year-old children engaged in MVPA (mean [SD]): 64.9 (25.7) minutes per day (53% met UK guidelines). Girls did less MVPA than boys, particularly during school hours. Children were less active on weekends (vs weekdays) and more active on spring/summer evenings (vs winter). Longitudinally, 6-year-old children did less light physical activity (−43.0; 95% confidence interval, −47.5 to −38.4 min/d) but were more sedentary (29.4; 24.6 to 34.2), and engaged in greater MVPA (7.1; 5.2 to 9.1) compared to when they were aged 4. Conclusion: Half of 6-year-old children met current activity guidelines; MVPA levels were lower in girls and at weekends. UK children became more sedentary but did more MVPA as they entered formal schooling. Physical activity promotion efforts should capitalize on these changes in MVPA, to maintain positive habits.