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Do We Ask the Right Questions and Use Appropriate Methodologies to Answer Them?

Øyvind Sandbakk

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Competition Between Desired Competitive Result, Tolerable Homeostatic Disturbance, and Psychophysiological Interpretation Determines Pacing Strategy

Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, Florentina J. Hettinga, Renato Barroso, Daniel Boullosa, Arturo Casado, Cristina Cortis, Andrea Fusco, Halle Gregorich, Salvador Jaime, Andrew M. Jones, Katherine R. Malterer, Robert Pettitt, John P. Porcari, Cassie Pratt, Patrick Reinschmidt, Phillip Skiba, Annabel Splinter, Alan St Clair Gibson, Jacob St Mary, Christian Thiel, Kate Uithoven, and Joyce van Tunen

Scientific interest in pacing goes back >100 years. Contemporary interest, both as a feature of athletic competition and as a window into understanding fatigue, goes back >30 years. Pacing represents the pattern of energy use designed to produce a competitive result while managing fatigue of different origins. Pacing has been studied both against the clock and during head-to-head competition. Several models have been used to explain pacing, including the teleoanticipation model, the central governor model, the anticipatory-feedback-rating of perceived exertion model, the concept of a learned template, the affordance concept, the integrative governor theory, and as an explanation for “falling behind.” Early studies, mostly using time-trial exercise, focused on the need to manage homeostatic disturbance. More recent studies, based on head-to-head competition, have focused on an improved understanding of how psychophysiology, beyond the gestalt concept of rating of perceived exertion, can be understood as a mediator of pacing and as an explanation for falling behind. More recent approaches to pacing have focused on the elements of decision making during sport and have expanded the role of psychophysiological responses including sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational, and cognitive-evaluative dimensions. These approaches have expanded the understanding of variations in pacing, particularly during head-to-head competition.

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Erratum. Effects of Low- Versus High-Velocity-Loss Thresholds With Similar Training Volume on Maximal Strength and Hypertrophy in Highly Trained Individuals

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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Erratum. A Novel Approach to Determining the Alactic Time Span in Connection with Assessment of the Maximal Rate of Lactate Accumulation in Elite Track Cyclists

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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The Relevance of Muscle Fiber Type to Physical Characteristics and Performance in Team-Sport Athletes

Henry J. Hopwood, Phillip M. Bellinger, Heidi R. Compton, Matthew N. Bourne, and Clare Minahan

Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to (1) determine the muscle fiber-type composition (or muscle fiber typology [MFT]) of team-sport athletes and (2) examine associations between MFT and the physical characteristics and performance tasks in team-sport athletes. Methods: Searches were conducted across numerous databases—PubMed, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar—using consistent search terms. Studies were included if they examined the MFT of team-sport athletes. Included studies underwent critical appraisal using the McMasters University critical appraisal tool for quantitative research. Results: A total of 10 studies were included in the present review, wherein the MFT of athletes was measured from 5 different team sports (soccer, rugby union, rugby league, handball, and volleyball). There was large variability in the MFT of team-sport athletes both within (up to 27.5%) and between sports (24.0% relative difference). Male football players with a higher proportion of type II fibers had faster 10- and 30-m sprint times, achieved a greater total distance sprinting (distance at >6.67 m·s−1), and a greater peak 1-minute sprint distance. Conclusions: MFT varies considerably between athletes both within and between different team sports. The results from some studies suggest that variation in MFT is associated with high-intensity running performance in a football match, as well as 10- and 30-m sprint times. Further experimental studies should focus on how determination of the MFT of team-sport athletes could be utilized to influence talent identification, team selection, and the individualization of training.

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Training Quality—An Unexplored Domain in Sport Science

Thomas Haugen, Espen Tønnessen, Silvana Bucher Sandbakk, and Øyvind Sandbakk

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Training Periodization, Intensity Distribution, and Volume in Trained Cyclists: A Systematic Review

Miguel Ángel Galán-Rioja, José María Gonzalez-Ravé, Fernando González-Mohíno, and Stephen Seiler

A well-planned periodized approach endeavors to allow road cyclists to achieve peak performance when their most important competitions are held. Purpose: To identify the main characteristics of periodization models and physiological parameters of trained road cyclists as described by discernable training intensity distribution (TID), volume, and periodization models. Methods: The electronic databases Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using a comprehensive list of relevant terms. Studies that investigated the effect of the periodization of training in cyclists and described training load (volume, TID) and periodization details were included in the systematic review. Results: Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Block periodization (characterized by employment of highly concentrated training workload phases) ranged between 1- and 8-week blocks of high-, medium-, or low-intensity training. Training volume ranged from 8.75 to 11.68 h·wk–1 and both pyramidal and polarized TID were used. Traditional periodization (characterized by a first period of high-volume/low-intensity training, before reducing volume and increasing the proportion of high-intensity training) was characterized by a cyclic progressive increase in training load, the training volume ranged from 7.5 to 10.76 h·wk–1, and pyramidal TID was used. Block periodization improved maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak aerobic power, lactate, and ventilatory thresholds, while traditional periodization improved VO2max, peak aerobic power, and lactate thresholds. In addition, a day-by-day programming approach improved VO2max and ventilatory thresholds. Conclusions: No evidence is currently available favoring a specific periodization model during 8 to 12 weeks in trained road cyclists. However, few studies have examined seasonal impact of different periodization models in a systematic way.

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New Approaches for Dissemination and Implementation of Sport-Science Research Outcomes

David B. Pyne and Julien D. Périard

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Louis Passfield—A Role Model for the Mission of IJSPP

Øyvind Sandbakk, Mark Burnley, James Hopker, Athanasios Pappous, Samuele Maria Marcora, and Gary Brickley

Open access

Study Designs to Reduce the Gap Between Science and Practice in Sport

Daniel Boullosa