Patrick O. McKeon and Jennifer M. Medina McKeon
Matthew J. Hussey, Alex E. Boron-Magulick, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee E. Welch Bacon
Clinical Scenario: Shoulder range of motion (ROM) in throwing athletes relies on a balance of mobility and stability to maintain proper function and health that, if disrupted, can lead to shoulder injury. There have been several studies that address the relationship between ROM deficits and overhead injuries; however, it may be unclear to clinicians which interventions are most effective for increasing ROM in the glenohumeral joints of overhead athletes. Clinical Question: In overhead athletes who have deficient shoulder ROM, is instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) more effective at acutely increasing ROM over the course of a patient’s treatment when compared with self-stretching? Summary of Key Findings: A thorough literature review yielded 3 studies relevant to the clinical question, and all 3 studies were included. Two articles found a significant increase in acute ROM when compared with a self-stretch measure. All 3 articles showed increases in internal rotation and horizontal adduction, and 1 study reported an increase in total arc of shoulder ROM. Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate evidence to support the use of IASTM to acutely increase ROM in the glenohumeral joint of overhead athletes. Clinicians should be aware of the variability with recommended treatment times; however, positive results have been seen with treatments lasting 5 to 6 minutes per treatment region. There is no consensus for treatment intensity, and certain IASTM tools require certification. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that IASTM is more effective at increasing shoulder ROM (ie, internal rotation, horizontal adduction, external rotation, total arc of motion) in overhead athletes than self-stretching measures.
Sarah Daniels, Gabriela Santiago, Jennifer Cuchna and Bonnie Van Lunen
Clinical Scenario: Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is a popular modality among health care professionals and is used to treat a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. A new technology has been established to allow for the miniaturization of the US unit. Patients receive treatment with the device secured to them, eliminating the portability constraint of traditional US units. Early studies suggest that this portable unit can deliver low-intensity acoustic energy achieving the same temperature increase and pain relief that come from traditional US units, in a more versatile and patient-friendly manner. Clinical Question: What effects does low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) have on measurable outcomes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for level 4 evidence or higher that investigated the effectiveness of LITUS. The literature search produced 3 possible studies related to the clinical question: 2 randomized controlled trials and 1 case series met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 1 study investigated the effects of LITUS on tissue temperature, 2 studies investigated the effects of LITUS on pain, and 1 study investigated LITUS effects on function. Clinical Bottom Line: The evidence supports the use of the LITUS unit to increase tissue temperature, decrease pain, and increase function. Therefore, practitioners may consider the use of the LITUS unit in patient populations over the use of the traditional high-intensity US treatment. Strength of Recommendation: In accordance with the 2009 Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine levels of evidence, there is grade I (insufficient) evidence to support the positive effects of the LITUS device for improving the following clinical outcomes: tissue temperature, decreasing pain, and increasing function. The inconsistency in the measured outcomes across the 3 studies only allows for minimal support of the LITUS device, warranting further research. Although clinical outcomes were different in each study, consistent evidence ranging from 4 to 1B levels were found in the 3 included studies.
Melissa Theige and Shannon David
Clinical Scenario: Surgical treatment of acetabular labral tears has been explored in multiple studies, while there is a lack of research on the effectiveness of conservative methods. Focused Clinical Question: To what extent can nonsurgical treatment produce symptomatic or functional improvements in athletes with an acetabular labral tear? Summary of Search, Best Evidence Appraised, and Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies of patients with confirmed acetabular labral tears who participated in any level of sport. Four studies were located, all of which were included. Clinical Bottom Line: The research discussed in this review agreed that conservative management of acetabular labral tears produced measurable improvements in pain and function among the athletes studied, including their ability to participate in sport activities. Based on these findings, it appears that conservative management is effective at rehabilitating athletes with acetabular labral tears. However, this method should not be applied to every athlete based on the low strength of current research. Treatment plans should be decided upon on a case-by-case basis. Strength of Recommendation: The studies located were of low quality. The highest Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Level of Evidence achieved was 4. Higher level studies must be conducted before the conclusions of this research can be applied clinically with assertion. Strength of recommendation is level 3.
Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins and Manolya Kavakli
Objectives: To determine the validity and reliability of the peak frontal plane knee angle evaluated by a virtual reality (VR) netball game when landing from a drop vertical jump. Study Design: Laboratory. Methods: Forty participants performed 3 drop vertical jumps evaluated by 3-dimensional motion analysis and 3 drop vertical jumps evaluated by the VR game. Limits of agreement for the peak projected frontal plane knee angle and peak knee abduction were determined. Participants were given a consensus category of “above threshold” or “below threshold” based on a prespecified threshold angle of 9° during landing. Classification agreement was determined using kappa coefficient, and accuracy was determined using specificity and sensitivity. Ten participants returned 1 week later to determine intrarater reliability, standard error of the measure, and typical error. Results: The mean difference in detected frontal plane knee angle was 3.39° (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03° to 5.74°). Limits of agreement were −10.27° (95% CI, −14.36° to −6.19°) to 17.05° (95% CI, 12.97° to 21.14°). Substantial agreement, specificity, and sensitivity were observed for the threshold classification (κ = .66; 95% CI, .42 to .88; specificity = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.0; and sensitivity = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.95). The game exhibited acceptable reliability over time (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC3,1 = .844), and error was approximately 2°. Conclusion: The VR game reliably evaluated a projected frontal plane knee angle. Although the knee angle detected by the VR game is strongly related to peak knee abduction, the accuracy of detecting the exact angle was limited. A threshold approach may be a more accurate approach for gaming technology to evaluate frontal plane knee angles when landing from a jump.
Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J. Brook and Chris Durall
Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity ballistic movements. As CrossFit is an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings: (1) The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs. (2) The search initially yielded >100 results, which were narrowed down to 3 level 2b retrospective cohort studies that were deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria. (3) In all 3 reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics. Clinical Bottom Line: Current evidence suggests that the injury risk from CrossFit training is comparable to Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, football, ice hockey, soccer, or gymnastics. Injuries to the shoulder(s) appear to be somewhat common with CrossFit. However, the certitude of these conclusions is questionable given the lack of randomization, control, or uniform training in the reviewed studies. Clinicians should be aware that injury is more prevalent in cases where supervision is not always available to athletes. This is more often the case for male participants who may not actively seek supervision during CrossFit exercise. Strength of Recommendation: Level 2b evidence from 3 retrospective cohort studies indicates that the risk of injury from participation in CrossFit is comparable to or lower than some common forms of exercise or strength training.
Miranda Brunett and René Revis Shingles
Clinical Scenario : The level of cultural competence of health care providers has been studied. However, limited scholarship has examined whether the cultural competence of the health care provider affects patient satisfaction. Focused Clinical Question: Does cultural competence of health care providers influence patient satisfaction with their experience with their provider? Summary of Key Findings: Having a culturally competent health care provider, or one who a patient perceives as culturally competent, does increase patient satisfaction. Clinical Bottom Line: Cultural competence in health care plays an important role in patients being satisfied with their providers, as well as patients willingly and actively participating in their treatment. Strength of Recommendation: Questions 1 to 5 and 9 of the critical appraisal skills program were answered “yes” for all studies in the critically appraised topic. Thus, the authors strongly support the findings.
Landon Lempke, Rebecca Wilkinson, Caitlin Murray and Justin Stanek
Clinical Scenario: Stretching is applied for the purposes of injury prevention, increasing joint range of motion (ROM), and increasing muscle extensibility. Many researchers have investigated various methods and techniques to determine the most effective way to increase joint ROM and muscle extensibility. Despite the numerous studies conducted, controversy still remains within clinical practice and the literature regarding the best methods and techniques for stretching. Focused Clinical Question: Is proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching more effective than static stretching for increasing hamstring muscle extensibility through increased hip ROM or increased knee extension angle (KEA) in a physically active population? Summary of Key Findings: Five studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. All 5 studies were randomized control trials examining mobility of the hamstring group. The studies measured hamstring ROM in a variety of ways. Three studies measured active KEA, 1 study measured passive KEA, and 1 study measured hip ROM via the single-leg raise test. Of the 5 studies, 1 study found greater improvements using PNF over static stretching for increasing hip flexion, and the remaining 4 studies found no significant difference between PNF stretching and static stretching in increasing muscle extensibility, active KEA, or hip ROM. Clinical Bottom Line: PNF stretching was not demonstrated to be more effective at increasing hamstring extensibility compared to static stretching. The literature reviewed suggests both are effective methods for increasing hip-flexion ROM. Strength of Recommendation: Using level 2 evidence and higher, the results show both static and PNF stretching effectively increase ROM; however, one does not appear to be more effective than the other.
Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila, Teresa Bento, Wellington Gomes, José Leitão and Nelson Fortuna de Sousa
Context: Ankle fractures (AFs) are the most common fractures of the lower limbs found in emergency services. Approximately 53% of these fractures are unstable and treated surgically. Objective: To conduct a systematic review evaluating functional outcomes and quality of life of patients with AFs surgically treated. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Five electronic databases were searched, without any limit on publication dates. Only patients with an unstable AF that was surgically treated were included; functional outcomes and the quality of life were controlled by the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey instrument. Evidence Synthesis: Five studies were included in the analysis, including 267 patients. The values of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale ranged between a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 7 points. Patients with surgically treated AF reported less functionality and physical capacity compared with the nonfractured population. Some patients experienced vitality, emotional, and mental health limitations for a long period. Most surgically treated patients reported no pain and a good health and social status. Conclusion: Limitations in functionality and physical capacity represent the main threats to health-related quality of life in patients with surgically treated AFs.
Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull, Mike Fantigrassi and Ian Montel
Context: The squat is a fundamental movement for weightlifting and sports performance. Both unilateral and bilateral squats are also used to assess transitional and dynamic lower-extremity control. Common lower-extremity conditions can have an influence on squat performance. Of interest are the effects of hip musculoskeletal conditions and associated factors, such as hip muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness, on squat performance. Currently, there has been no appraisal of the evidence regarding the association of these conditions and associated factors on squat performance. Objective: This study evaluated the current evidence regarding common hip musculoskeletal conditions and associated factors, such as hip muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness, on squat performance. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was conducted according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and Google Scholar® was conducted in October, 2016 using the following keywords alone and in combination: hip, joint, arthritis, pain, range of motion (ROM), fatigue, tightness, pathology, condition, muscle, intraarticular, extraarticular, femoroacetabular impingement, single leg, bilateral, squat, performance, and technique. The grading of studies was conducted using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Evidence Synthesis: The authors identified 35 citations, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. The qualifying studies yielded a total of 542 subjects (160 men and 382 women; mean age = 29.3 (5.9) y) and measured performance with either the barbell squat, step down, bilateral, or single-leg squat. Femoroacetabular impingement and hip arthroscopy were the only hip conditions found that affected the squat. Associated factors, such as muscle pain, fatigue, and tightness, also influenced squat performance. Conclusion: This review found that common hip conditions and associated factors and their effects on squat performance to be underinvestigated. Future research should focus on the association between common hip conditions and squat performance.