Accelerometer data are widely used in research to provide objective measurements of physical activity. Frequently, participants may remove accelerometers during their observation period resulting in missing data referred to as nonwear periods. Common approaches for handling nonwear periods include discarding data (days with insufficient hours or individuals with insufficient valid days) from analyses and single imputation (SI) methods. Purpose: This study evaluates the performance of various discard-, SI-, and multiple imputation (MI)-based approaches on the ability to accurately and precisely characterize the relationship between a summarized measure of accelerometer counts (mean counts per minute) and an outcome (body mass index). Methods: Realistic accelerometer data were simulated under various scenarios that induced nonwear. Data were analyzed using common and MI methods for handling nonwear. Bias, relative standard error, relative mean squared error, and coverage probabilities were compared across methods. Results: MI approaches were superior to commonly applied methods, with bias that ranged from −0.001 to −0.028 that was considerably lower than that of discard-based methods (ranging from −0.050 to −0.057) and SI methods (ranging from −0.061 to −0.081). We also reported substantial variation among MI strategies, with coverage probabilities ranging from .04 to .96. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the benefit of applying MI methods over more commonly applied discard- and SI-based approaches. Additionally, we show that how you apply MI matters, where including data from previously observed acceleration measurements in the imputation model when using MI improves model performance.
Kristopher I. Kapphahn, Jorge A. Banda, K. Farish Haydel, Thomas N. Robinson, and Manisha Desai
Robert C. van de Graaf, Leonard Hofstra, and Erik J.A. Scherder
Shiho Amagasa, Shigeru Inoue, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Sayaka Kurosawa, Neville Owen, and Koichiro Oka
Background: Differences in accelerometer-measured sedentary behavior and different physical activity (PA) intensities between men and women have been poorly described. The authors examined gender differences in time-use activity composition and total volume of PA. Methods: A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted from 2013 to 2015 with a randomized sample of 6000 middle-aged (40–64 y) community-dwelling Japanese adults living in urban and regional cities. Participants wore Active style Pro HJA-350IT on their waist for 7 consecutive days. Gender differences in activity time use was examined using compositional data analysis to control for time spent in all activity measures. Results: In total, 757 participants (303 men, 52.3 [7.1] y) with valid data were included in the analysis. Women spent on average 12.6% less time in sedentary behavior and 23.4% more time in light-intensity PA than men, whereas no significant difference was found for moderate to vigorous PA. Women accumulated a significantly greater volume of PA than men (17.8 vs 15.0 metabolic equivalent of task h/d). Conclusions: Japanese middle-aged women showed higher levels of PA than men because they spent more time in light-intensity PA. Given the health benefits of light-intensity PA, evaluating only moderate to vigorous PA may lead to an underestimation of women’s participation in PA.
Charles B. Corbin, Hyeonho Yu, and Diane L. Gill
Physical education programs in the United States emerged in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Over time, physical education became the field of kinesiology with an established disciplinary base with multiple associated professions. Historical context is provided for five different eras. Textbooks, including those authored by National Academy of Kinesiology fellows, played an important role in the evolution of the field, providing direction, context, and content for both the subdisciplines and the professions. Arguments are offered for the value of textbooks as an important form of scholarship (the scholarship of integration), for the value of textbooks in providing visibility and real-world impact for the field of kinesiology, and for the value of associated textbook ancillary materials as teaching resources for faculty in institutions of higher learning.
Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird
The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.