This cross-sectional study explored athlete responses to the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, examining its relationship with well-being. Athlete (N = 207; mean age 27.9 years) scores were consistent with previous population means. Scores on the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale did not differ between elite and nonelite athletes, nor did they correlate significantly with trait competitiveness. Significant differences emerged based on athlete well-being state, with athletes categorized as “flourishing” scoring higher on the total score and all subscales of the Compassion Motivation and Action Scales Self-Compassion Scale, as compared with those with “moderate mental health” (Cohen’s ds from 0.58 to 0.92). Furthermore, the distress tolerance subscale significantly mediated the relationship between self-compassion intentions and well-being (indirect path: B = 0.034, p < .001). The results suggest that self-compassionate intentions are not enough, and athletes may need support to tolerate the distress that comes with moving toward one’s own suffering.
Courtney C. Walton, Kelsey J. Lewis, James Kirby, Rosemary Purcell, Simon M. Rice, and Margaret S. Osborne
Maressa da Rocha, Maria de C. Macedo, Geyson de L. Batista, Viviane Moura, Kariny R. Ferreira, Michelle A. Barbosa, and Alexandre C. Barbosa
This study aimed to assess the combination of video-based kinematic variables adjusted by intrinsic covariates to predict the relative eccentric force (RelF) during the Nordic curl. The participants (n = 21) performed Nordic curls (3 trials; 3-min rest) on a device measuring the eccentric force. The peaks were normalized by body weight. Kinovea software was used to track angular and linear velocity and acceleration from recorded videos. Two prediction models with multiple linear regression equations associated kinematic, anthropometric, and age variables to adjust the actual RelF. The equations obtained the predicted RelF. The actual RelF was inversely correlated with height (r = −.52), tangential (r = −.50) and centripetal accelerations (r = −.715), and angular velocity (r = −.70). The best prediction models combined angular velocity with age (F 2,18 = 15.1, P = .001, r = .792, r 2 = .627) and with height (F 2,18 = 14.5, P = .001, r = .785, r 2 = .616). No differences were observed between actual and predicted values (P = .993−.994), with good levels of agreement and consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient = .77−.78; Cronbach α = .86−.87). Bland–Altman results showed high levels of agreement and low biases. The standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change ranges were 0.46 to 0.49 N/kg and 1.28 to 1.36 N/kg, respectively. Also, the percentage of standard error of measurement was below 10% (7.92%–8.35%). The coefficient of variation analysis returned a 14.54% and 15.13% for each model, respectively. Kinematic analysis offers portability and low cost to current expensive or technical impaired dynamometry-based techniques to assess the RelF.
Debra Kriger, Amélie Keyser-Verreault, Janelle Joseph, and Danielle Peers
Intersectional approaches are needed in sport research and administration to create significant changes in access, participation, and leadership. The operationalizing intersectionality framework—graphically represented as a wheel with spokes and points of traction—offers a nonexhaustive, evolving structure that can facilitate contextual, deliberate actions to disrupt overlapping systems of oppression. The framework was assembled to guide E-Alliance, the gender equity in sport in Canada research hub, in embodying its commitment to intersectional approaches and designed for broader application to sport. Current gender equity efforts mostly continue to prioritize the knowledge and needs of White, middle–upper-class, nondisabled, not fat, heteronormative, binary, cisgender women and have yet to achieve parity. Acting meaningfully on commitments to intersectional approaches means focusing on how axes work together and influence each other. The framework can help advance cultural sport psychology and ultimately improve athletic well-being.
J. Ty Hopkins and Christopher D. Ingersoll
Mindy F. Levin and Daniele Piscitelli
There is a lack of conceptual and theoretical clarity among clinicians and researchers regarding the control of motor actions based on the use of the term “motor control.” It is important to differentiate control processes from observations of motor output to improve communication and to make progress in understanding motor disorders and their remediation. This article clarifies terminology related to theoretical concepts underlying the control of motor actions, emphasizing how the term “motor control” is applied in neurorehabilitation. Two major opposing theoretical frameworks are described (i.e., direct and indirect), and their strengths and pitfalls are discussed. Then, based on the proposition that sensorimotor rehabilitation should be predicated on one comprehensive theory instead of an eclectic mix of theories and models, several solutions are offered about how to address controversies in motor learning, optimality, and adaptability of movement.
Kate N. Jochimsen, James D. Doorley, Ana-Maria Vranceanu, Brian Noehren, Stephen T. Duncan, and Cale A. Jacobs
Psychological factors are receiving increased attention for their role in musculoskeletal health, surgical outcomes, and patient-reported outcome measures. This study examined if preoperative and 3-month postoperative pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and self-efficacy differ between patients who report greater versus less than 75% overall improvement from baseline to 3 months after hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Of 43 patients, 13 (30.2%) reported <75% improvement 3 months after surgery. Patients who reported <75% improvement had higher pain catastrophizing (p = .04), higher kinesiophobia (p = .02), and lower self-efficacy (p = .007) 3 months after surgery. None of the preoperative psychological factors differed between groups (p ≥ .67). Findings suggest that patients with maladaptive psychological responses 3 months following surgery may also perceive suboptimal surgical improvement.
Adam B. Rosen, Abbis Jaffri, Andrew Mitchell, Rachel M. Koldenhoven, Cameron J. Powden, John J. Fraser, Janet E. Simon, Matthew Hoch, and Christopher J. Burcal
Context: Ankle sprains result in pain and disability. While factors such as body mass and prior injury contribute to subsequent injury, the association of the number of ankle sprains on body anthropometrics and self-reported function are unclear in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to assess differences in anthropometric measurements and self-reported function between the number of ankle sprains utilizing a large, pooled data set. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Data were pooled from 14 studies (total N = 412) collected by the Chronic Ankle Instability Outcomes Network. Participants were categorized by the number of self-reported sprains. Anthropometric data and self-reported function were compared between those who reported a single versus >1 ankle sprain as well as among groups of those who had 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 ankle sprains, respectively. Results: Those who had >1 ankle sprain had higher mass (P = .001, d = 0.33) and body mass index (P = .002, d = 0.32) and lower Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Activities of Daily Living (P < .001, r = .22), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-Sport (P < .001, r = .33), and Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (P < .001, r = .34) scores compared to the single ankle sprain group. Those who had a single ankle sprain weighed less than those who reported ≥5 sprains (P = .008, d = 0.42) and had a lower body mass index than those who reported 2 sprains (P = .031, d = 0.45). Conclusions: Some individuals with a history of multiple ankle sprains had higher body mass and self-reported disability compared to those with a single sprain, factors that are likely interrelated. Due to the potential for long-term health concerns associated with ankle sprains, clinicians should incorporate patient education and interventions that promote physical activity, healthy dietary intake, and optimize function as part of comprehensive patient-centered care.
Graig M. Chow, Lindsay M. Garinger, Jaison Freeman, Savanna K. Ward, and Matthew D. Bird
The aim of this study was to investigate expert practitioners’ approaches to conducting a first sport psychology session with individual clients as there is sparse empirical literature on this topic. Nine expert Certified Mental Performance Consultants completed a semistructured interview where they discussed experiences conducting a first meeting with an athlete. Primary objectives included establishing the relationship, setting guidelines and expectations, understanding the client’s background, identifying presenting concerns, and formulating the treatment plan and building skills. Building rapport was an aspect used to establish the relationship while discussing confidentiality was utilized to set guidelines. Important strategies employed to increase the perceived benefits to services included conveying the consulting approach and philosophy. Lessons learned centered around doing too much and not appreciating individual differences of clients. Findings show expert consultants aim to achieve similar broad objectives in the first session and provide a basis for best practices in this area.
Ju-Yul Yoon, Seung-Rok Kang, Hye-Seong Kim, Yu Hui Won, Sung-Hee Park, Jeong-Hwan Seo, Myoung-Hwan Ko, and Gi-Wook Kim
Context: Whole-body vibration (WBV) training improves muscle strength and balance. Few studies have focused on the effects of WBV frequencies below 30 Hz. We aimed to investigate the effect of low-frequency WBV training on muscle activity, fatigue recovery, and oxygen consumption (VO2). Design: Prospective single-group, repeated-measures study. Methods: In this controlled laboratory setting study, 20 healthy adults (age 23.26 [1.66] y) performed half squats at 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 30-Hz WBV. Muscle activity was evaluated using the root mean square and peak electromyography amplitude of 6 muscles (iliocostalis, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius) obtained via surface electromyography. VO2 was measured during the squats using a gas analyzer, and fatigue recovery was evaluated using measurements of lactate after the squats and after a recovery period. Statistical significance was set at P < .05, and analysis of variance was conducted to determine differences in muscle activity, fatigue, recovery, and VO2, with post hoc analyses as appropriate. Results: Of the 6 muscles measured, the muscle activity of the gastrocnemius alone significantly increased from 0 Hz at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 Hz based on the root mean square values and at 4, 8, 12, and 30 Hz based on the peak electromyography amplitude values. There were no significant differences in the other muscles. There were no significant differences in VO2 or in lactate levels. Conclusions: Low-frequency WBV during squat exercises significantly increased the activity of the gastrocnemius medialis only at specific frequencies in healthy young adults. Low-frequency WBV is safe and has the potential to increase muscle activity.