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Samuel R. Nyman

Despite interest as to the benefits of Tai Chi, there remains a controversy over its effectiveness as an exercise intervention for preventing falls among older adults. This review synthesizes the evidence base with a focus on meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials with community-dwelling older adults. It provides a critical lens on the evidence and quality of the trials. High-quality evidence suggests that Tai Chi is an effective intervention for preventing falls in community settings; however, there is unclear evidence for long-term care facilities and an absence of evidence for hospital settings. When compared directly with other exercise interventions, Tai Chi may offer a superior strategy for reducing falls through its benefits on cognitive functioning. Using data from the current Cochrane review, a new synthesis is presented suggesting that 71–81% of community-dwelling older adults are adherent to class-based Tai Chi interventions. The practical opportunities and challenges for practitioners are discussed.

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Nicholas P. Davidson, James Du and Michael D. Giardina

The rapidly escalating COVID-19 pandemic has forced the sport industry into unchartered territory. Beginning on March 11, 2020, when the National Basketball Association suspended its season, the American sports landscape has consequently encountered an unprecedented number of temporary suspensions, postponements, and cancellations. Although most major leagues and their pertaining sports have halted to a sudden stop, professional wrestling has surprisingly continued on, including World Wrestling Entertainment’s WrestleMania 36, which was held without fans in attendance. The maintenance of professional wrestling during the COVID-19 crisis has presented a unique situation, in which fans and companies involved in the sport have rallied on social media platforms behind the sport’s relative normality in a time of global uncertainty. Leveraging publicly trackable Twitter data, we analyzed public sentiments toward two of the largest companies (e.g., World Wrestling Entertainment and All Elite Wrestling) in the professional wrestling industry and related trends during the widespread onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. The results represent exploratory insights surrounding the continuation of professional wrestling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has exposed major weaknesses in economic, governmental, and social structures that many have taken for granted in everyday life. The sport industry, which has gained unprecedented popularity in recent decades, is no exception. Decisions, driven in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, to suspend play in major sports leagues across the globe have exposed the precarious nature of the work situation that hourly event workers find themselves in. As the games stopped, so did the earnings of workers who impact essential aspects of the sport spectators’ experience. These workers include the part-time front of house staff for public assembly facilities, including ushers, concessions workers, ticket takers, and security personnel. This essay, drawing on ideas from C.W. Mills, Arne Kalleberg, and Guy Standing, will examine the impact of the pandemic on the employment of these workers by looking at the state of labor associated with sport and sports events. Furthermore, the essay will explore the challenges facing a class of workers who depend on numerous part-time or seasonal sports event jobs to scrape together an existence when sport suddenly stops. Finally, the essay will address the potential aftereffects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sport labor and consider how sport work could change as a result. This scholarly commentary lays the groundwork for further study and analysis of an important, yet rarely remarked on, aspect of employment morality and sport labor studies.

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Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

Following the cancellation of the 2020 National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s Basketball Final Four, the Atlanta Basketball Host Committee faced the unique challenge of executing a “postevent” wind-down amid a global health emergency and citywide stay-at-home mandate. While a significant portion of the host committee’s tasks were completed in the days and weeks after the cancellation, one key component that lingered was event legacy. In this study, the authors examined how a local organizing committee’s legacy planning was disrupted as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. Based on interviews with National Collegiate Athletic Association and host committee officials, direct and participant-based observation, and an analysis of local and social media reporting, the authors described the Atlanta Basketball Host Committee’s pre- and postpandemic legacy plans. This study underscores the potential enduring nature of legacy plans, even during unprecedented crises that threaten the headlining event.

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Marina B. Pinheiro, Nicola Fairhall, Sarah Walsh, Tristan Chesterfield Franks, Wing Kwok, Adrian Bauman and Catherine Sherrington

Background: Frailty and sarcopenia are common age-related conditions associated with adverse outcomes. Physical activity has been identified as a potential preventive strategy for both frailty and sarcopenia. The authors aimed to investigate the association between physical activity and prevention of frailty and sarcopenia in people aged 65 years and older. Methods: The authors searched for systematic reviews (January 2008 to November 2019) and individual studies (January 2010 to March 2020) in PubMed. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies that investigated the effect of physical activity on frailty and/or sarcopenia in people aged 65 years and older. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to rate certainty of evidence. Results: Meta-analysis showed that physical activity probably prevents frailty (4 studies; frailty score pooled standardized mean difference, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.43; P = .017, I 2 = 57%, moderate certainty evidence). Only one trial investigated physical activity for sarcopenia prevention and did not provide conclusive evidence (risk ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–12.19). Five observational studies showed positive associations between physical activity and frailty or sarcopenia prevention. Conclusions: Physical activity probably prevents frailty among people aged 65 years and older. The impact of physical activity on the prevention of sarcopenia remains unknown, but observational studies indicate the preventive role of physical activity.

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Kristin Suorsa, Anna Pulakka, Tuija Leskinen, Jaana Pentti, Andreas Holtermann, Olli J. Heinonen, Juha Sunikka, Jussi Vahtera and Sari Stenholm

Background: The accuracy of wrist-worn accelerometers in identifying sedentary time has been scarcely studied in free-living conditions. The aim of this study was to compare daily sedentary time estimates between a thigh-worn accelerometer, which measured sitting and lying postures, and a wrist-worn accelerometer, which measured low levels of movement. Methods: The study population consisted of 259 participants (M age = 62.8 years, SD = 0.9) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA). Participants wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their mid-thigh and an Actigraph wActiSleep-BT accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist simultaneously for a minimum of 4 days in free-living conditions. Two definitions to estimate daily sedentary time were used for data from the wrist-worn accelerometer: 1) the count cutpoint, ≤1853 counts per minute; and 2) the Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) cutpoint, <30 mg. Results: Compared to the thigh-worn accelerometer, daily sedentary time estimate was 63 min (95% confidence interval [CI] = −53 to −73) lower by the count cutpoint and 50 min (95% CI = 34 to 67) lower by the ENMO cutpoint. The limits of agreement in daily sedentary time estimates between the thigh- and cutpoint methods for wrist-worn accelerometers were wide (the count cutpoint: −117 to 243, the ENMO cutpoint: −212 to 313 min). Conclusions: Currently established cutpoint-based methods to estimate sedentary time from wrist-worn accelerometers result in underestimation of daily sedentary time compared to posture-based estimates of thigh-worn accelerometers. Thus, sedentary time estimates obtained from wrist-worn accelerometers using currently available cutpoint-based methods should be interpreted with caution and future work is needed to improve their accuracy.

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Daniel H. Aslan, Joshua M. Collette and Justus D. Ortega

The decline of walking performance is a key determinant of morbidity among older adults. Healthy older adults have been shown to have a 15–20% lower walking economy compared with young adults. However, older adults who run for exercise have a higher walking economy compared with older adults who walk for exercise. Yet, it remains unclear if other aerobic exercises yield similar improvements on walking economy. The purpose of this study was to determine if regular bicycling exercise affects walking economy in older adults. We measured metabolic rate while 33 older adult “bicyclists” or “walkers” and 16 young adults walked on a level treadmill at four speeds between (0.75–1.75 m/s). Across the range of speeds, older bicyclists had a 9–17% greater walking economy compared with older walkers (p = .009). In conclusion, bicycling exercise mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy, whereas walking for exercise has a minimal effect on improving walking economy.

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Karl M. Newell

A review and synthesis of the literature on the learning and development of motor skills supports the postulation that whether a motor skill can be deemed fundamental is dependent on the collective presence of three conditions: (i) uniqueness to the movement pattern and/or outcome; (ii) near universality of the functional outcome in the healthy population; (iii) capacity to act as an antecedent influence supporting generalization to a large and broad set of perceptual-motor skills. Within this framework, it is proposed that the infant motor development sequence underpinning upright posture (e.g., sitting, bipedal standing), locomotion (e.g., walking, running), and object-interaction (e.g., grasping) represents the minimum set of fundamental motor skills from which all other skills evolve with over the lifespan. This position is in contrast to the views of many students of motor development and learning who describe numerous skills that typically emerge in the ∼2- to 18-year-old range as fundamental but do not meet the criteria outlined here to be fundamental. It is proposed that these be labeled as core developmental activities having a more restricted but still practically relevant influence on the acquisition of and generalization to other motor skills.