Keith R. Lohse
Nicola Brown, Jacky Forsyth, Rachael Bullingham and Claire-Marie Roberts
Lori A. Gano-Overway
Ignacio Perez-Pozuelo, Thomas White, Kate Westgate, Katrien Wijndaele, Nicholas J. Wareham and Soren Brage
Background: Wrist-worn accelerometry is the commonest objective method for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies. Research-grade devices capture raw triaxial acceleration which, in addition to quantifying movement, facilitates assessment of orientation relative to gravity. No population-based study has yet described the interrelationship and variation of these features by time and personal characteristics. Methods: 2,043 United Kingdom adults (35–65 years) wore an accelerometer on the non-dominant wrist and a chest-mounted combined heart-rate-and-movement sensor for 7 days free-living. From raw (60 Hz) wrist acceleration, we derived movement (non-gravity acceleration) and pitch and roll (forearm) angles relative to gravity. We inferred physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) from combined sensing and sedentary time from approximate horizontal arm angle coupled with low movement. Results: Movement differences by time-of-day and day-of-week were associated with forearm angles; more movement in downward forearm positions. Mean (SD) movement was similar between sexes ∼31 (42) mg, despite higher PAEE in men. Women spent longer with the forearm pitched >0°, above horizontal (53% vs 36%), and less time at <0° (37% vs 53%). Diurnal pitch was 2.5–5° above and 0–7.5°below horizontal during night and daytime, respectively; corresponding roll angles were ∼0° (hand flat) and ∼20° (thumb-up). Differences were more pronounced in younger participants. All diurnal profiles indicated later wake-times on weekends. Daytime pitch was closer to horizontal on weekdays; roll was similar. Sedentary time was higher (17 vs 15 hours/day) in obese vs normal-weight individuals. Conclusions: More movement occurred in forearm positions below horizontal, commensurate with activities including walking. Findings suggest time-specific population differences in behaviors by age, sex, and BMI.
Matthew Pearce, Tom R.P. Bishop, Stephen Sharp, Kate Westgate, Michelle Venables, Nicholas J. Wareham and Søren Brage
Harmonization of data for pooled analysis relies on the principle of inferential equivalence between variables from different sources. Ideally, this is achieved using models of the direct relationship with gold standard criterion measures, but the necessary validation study data are often unavailable. This study examines an alternative method of network harmonization using indirect models. Starting methods were self-report or accelerometry, from which we derived indirect models of relationships with doubly labelled water (DLW)-based physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using sets of two bridge equations via one of three intermediate measures. Coefficients and performance of indirect models were compared to corresponding direct models (linear regression of DLW-based PAEE on starting methods). Indirect model beta coefficients were attenuated compared to direct model betas (10%–63%), narrowing the range of PAEE values; attenuation was greater when bridge equations were weak. Directly and indirectly harmonized models had similar error variance but most indirectly derived values were biased at group-level. Correlations with DLW-based PAEE were identical after harmonization using continuous linear but not categorical models. Wrist acceleration harmonized to DLW-based PAEE via combined accelerometry and heart rate sensing had the lowest error variance (24.5%) and non-significant mean bias 0.9 (95%CI: −1.6; 3.4) kJ·day−1·kg−1. Associations between PAEE and BMI were similar for directly and indirectly harmonized values, but most fell outside the confidence interval of the criterion PAEE-to-BMI association. Indirect models can be used for harmonization. Performance depends on the measurement properties of original data, variance explained by available bridge equations, and similarity of population characteristics.
Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson and John R. Sirard
Purpose: Develop a direct observation (DO) system to serve as a criterion measure for the calibration of models applied to free-living (FL) accelerometer data. Methods: Ten participants (19.4 ± 0.8 years) were video-recorded during four, one-hour FL sessions in different settings: 1) school, 2) home, 3) community, and 4) physical activity. For each setting, 10-minute clips from three randomly selected sessions were extracted and coded by one expert coder and up to 20 trained coders using the Observer XT software (Noldus, Wageningen, the Netherlands). The coder defines each whole-body movement which was further described with three modifiers: 1) locomotion, 2) activity type, and 3) MET value (used to categorize intensity level). Percent agreement was calculated for intra- and inter-rater reliability. For intra-rater reliability, the criterion coder coded all 12 clips twice, separated by at least one week between coding sessions. For inter-rater reliability, coded clips by trained coders were compared to the expert coder. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated to assess the agreement of intensity category for intra- and inter-rater comparisons described above. Results: For intra-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 91.9 ± 3.9% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. For inter-rater reliability, mean percent agreement ranged from 88.2 ± 3.5% to 100.0 ± 0.0% across all variables in all settings. ICCs for intensity category ranged from 0.74–1.00 and 0.81–1.00 for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. Conclusion: The DO system is reliable and feasible to serve as a criterion measure of FL physical activity in young adults to calibrate accelerometers, subsequently improving interpretation of surveillance and intervention research.
Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
Background: The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion completed research to understand factors that could encourage Americans to follow the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, second edition, released in 2018. This study describes survey research assessing demographic characteristics that might be related to knowledge and awareness of the guidelines. Methods: An online survey of 2050 adult physical activity contemplators assessed knowledge of physical activity, awareness of the guidelines, and knowledge of dosage recommendations. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed, and demographic differences in knowledge and awareness were analyzed using Pearson chi-square tests and Fisher exact tests. Results: Respondents had medium to high knowledge of physical activity, although knowledge varied significantly by socioeconomic factors. Knowledge of dosage recommendations was very low, with 2% and 3% of respondents correctly identifying recommended moderate- and vigorous-intensity doses, respectively. Only 22% were aware of the guidelines; awareness was greater among those with a higher education or income and those without a disability. Conclusions: These findings guided the development of the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion’s Move Your Way campaign and reinforced the need to raise awareness of the guidelines and promote behavior change among physical activity contemplators—particularly those from lower socioeconomic groups.
Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr and Timothy Kellison
The relationship between sport and the natural environment is bidirectional and critical to the production of sport products, events, and experiences. Researchers have studied sport and the natural environment within the various subdisciplines of sport management. However, given the changing climate and mounting public concern for the environment, there is pressure to reconsider the relevance and significance of the natural environment, which is taken for granted in managerial contexts. Reflecting the importance of the natural environment, the robustness of the current literature, and the potential for the future, we propose a new subdiscipline of sport management called sport ecology. Thus, we proposed, in this paper, a definition for sport ecology, (re)introduced key concepts related to this subdiscipline (e.g., sustainability, green), and highlighted the leading research that serves as the foundation for sport ecology. We concluded with a discussion on the ways sport ecology can inform—and be informed by—other subdisciplines of sport management.
Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett
Background: The Move Your Way campaign, developed by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, aims to improve Americans’ adherence to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. This article describes the research that informed the campaign’s products, messaging, and strategy. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used to understand participants’ preferences for physical activity messages and information seeking. Two rounds (round 1 [n = 95] and round 2 [n = 73]) of focus groups and an online survey (n = 2050) were conducted with adult physical activity contemplators. A third round (n = 84) of focus groups was conducted with children, teens, and parents of young children. Results: Adults, parents, teens, and children preferred messages that reflected diverse examples of activities; most participants disliked “one-size-fits-all” recommendations. Adults and parents preferred messages that emphasized specific health benefits over generic messages about overall health. Although some participants preferred getting physical activity information from digital search tools and social media platforms, many preferred getting this information from family members and friends. Conclusion: The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion translated these findings into 3 themes used for Move Your Way implementation: (1) leverage social and community connections, (2) emphasize representation through inclusion and diversity, and (3) customize physical activity recommendations to make them more achievable.